Antivirus là gì – toàn bộ thông tin về cách thực diệt virut
Antivirus là Antivirus. Đây là nghĩa tiếng Việt của thuật ngữ Antivirus – một thuật ngữ thuộc nhóm Software Terms – Công nghệ thông tin.
Độ phổ biến(Factor rating): 3/10
Phần mềm diệt virus là một loại tiện ích sử dụng cho việc quét và loại bỏ virus từ máy tính của bạn. Trong khi nhiều loại chống virus (hay “chống virus”) chương trình tồn tại, mục đích chính của họ là để bảo vệ máy tính khỏi virus và loại bỏ bất kỳ loại virus được tìm thấy.
Xem thêm: Thuật ngữ công nghệ A-Z
Giải thích ý nghĩaWhat is the Antivirus? – Definition
Antivirus software is a type of utility used for scanning and removing viruses from your computer. While many types of antivirus (or “anti-virus”) programs exist, their primary purpose is to protect computers from viruses and remove any viruses that are found.Understanding the AntivirusThuật ngữ liên quan
Source: Antivirus là gì? Technology Dictionary – Filegi – Techtopedia – Techterm
Antivirus là gì? Những điều cần biết về phần mềm diệt virus
29/01/2019 08:00:00 16566
Trong bài viết này, Kaspersky Proguide sẽ giới thiệu cho các bạn những thông tin và kiến thức cơ bản về Antivirus cũng như công dụng của phần mềm diệt virus đối với việc bảo vệ máy tính của bạn khỏi những nguy hiểm đang phát triển ngày nay.
Antivirus là gì?
Antivirus là từ ghép tiếng anh của Anti và Virus. Anti có nghĩa là phòng chống, Virus (virus máy tính) là các chủng phần mềm độc hại được hacker tạo ra và tận dụng tấn công máy tính của nhiều nạn nhân nhằm mang lại các lợi ích cho hacker như đánh cắp thông tin, phá hoại hệ thống máy tính, lừa đảo chiếm đoạt tiền, tống tiền nạn nhân…
Antivirus – hay còn gọi là phần mềm diệt virus là một dạng phần mềm có khả năng bảo vệ, phát hiện, cảnh báo và loại bỏ các virus máy tính đang xâm nhập và tấn công máy tính của người dụng, từ đó khắc phục một phần hoặc hoàn toàn các hậu quả do virus tấn công máy tính. Ngoài ra, ngày nay các phần mềm antivirus còn có khả năng nâng cấp qua internet để nhận diện và phòng chống các phần mềm độc hại, virus, trojan, spyware, mã độc tống tiền đang ngày càng tinh vi và nguy hiểm.
Chức năng của phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus
Với mục tiêu là bảo vệ người dùng máy tính khỏi các nguy cơ tấn công bằng mã độc, virus máy tính, phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus có tính năng cơ bản nhất là kiểm tra, quét các tập tin, thư mục, ổ đĩa trong hệ thống máy tính của người dụng nhằm phát hiện các virus, phần mềm độc hại trên máy tính, ngay lập tức cảnh báo cho người dùng, tiêu diệt các phần mềm độc hại và khôi phục trạng thái của máy tính về trạng thái an toàn trước đó trong khả năng có thể ( 1 phần hay hoàn toàn dựa vào khả năng của phần mềm).
Bên cạnh đó, ngày nay phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus không những có thể phát hiện các phần mềm độc hại, mà còn được trang bị khả năng phòng chống, kịp thời phát hiện các hành động đáng ngờ từ các phần mềm trong máy có sự tương đồng như các hành động của virus hoặc phần mềm độc hại để cảnh báo, tiêu diệt và phòng chống các thiệt hại mà các phần mềm độc hại này có thể gây ra.
Các kỹ thuật phát hiện và diệt virus cơ bản bao gồm so sánh các dữ liệu virus đã nhận dạng trước đó nhằm kịp thời phát hiện, tiêu diệt các virus độc hại, phát hiện và kiểm tra các hoạt động bất thường trên máy tính nhằm tìm ra các phần mềm độc hại hoạt động ẩn trên máy tính của người dùng, phối hợp với dữ liệu mạng toàn cầu kiểm soát liên tục các mã độc và biến thể mã độc mới, tận dụng nhiều công cụ hỗ trợ bảo vệ người dùng mới nhằm ngăn chặn các mã độc nhiều chủng loại, từ keylogger đến lừa đảo, mã độc tống tiền…
Phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus ngày nay đã được trang bị nhiều công nghệ mới bên cạnh các kỹ thuật phát hiện và diệt virus cơ bản, do đó khả năng bảo vệ máy tính của các phần mềm này không chỉ giới hạn trong việc tìm kiếm so sánh các mẫu virus đã biết trước đó, mà còn có thể học hỏi từ mạng điện toán đám mây, liên tục thu thập các mối đe dọa phần mềm độc hại, virus độc hại mới từ hàng triệu máy tính khác nhau trên toàn cầu, nhanh chóng bảo vệ máy tính trước hàng loạt mối đe dọa mới nhất mà không cần phải cài đặt phiên bản mới.
Phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus tốt nhất hiện nay
Hiện nay trên thế giới có rất nhiều phần mềm diệt virus từ nhiều nhà sản xuất và thương hiệu khác nhau. Trong đó, phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus thông dụng và được nhiều người trên thế giới tin dùng và đánh giá hữu hiệu trong việc phòng chống mã độc, phần mềm độc hại, virus độc hại… có thể kể đến chính là các dòng sản phẩm của Kaspersky Lab.
Tại sao các sản phẩm diệt virus của Kaspersky Lab lại được tin dùng đến vậy?
Kaspersky Lab là thương hiệu có lịch sử 20 năm được các chuyên gia bảo mật công nhận là thương hiệu bảo mật đã trải qua hàng trăm đánh giá và đạt được nhiều giải thưởng về khả năng bảo vệ người dùng khỏi mã độc và tội phạm mạng ngày nay.
Không ngừng tìm tòi và phát triển các công nghệ mới, các dòng sản phẩm của Kaspersky Lab đạt được sự bảo vệ được duy trì ổn định, nhanh chóng cập nhật và phát hiện các dòng phần mềm độc hại, mã độc, virus mới cũng như các biến thể của nó để kịp thời ngăn chặn và bảo vệ người dùng. Chỉ trong kỳ đánh giá TOP 3 trên toàn cầu về các phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus, Kaspersky Lab luôn giữ vị trí đầu bảng với hàng loạt các đánh giá hạng nhất và top 3. Điển hình là trong năm 2017, Kaspersky Lab tham gia 86 đợt kiểm tra riêng biệt và đánh giá, kết quả công nhận Kaspersky Lab xứng đáng nhận 72 giải nhất và 78 giải trong top 3. Đây là một đánh giá minh bạch cho thấy chất lượng uy tín của phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus Kaspersky.
Các dòng sản phẩm phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus mạnh nhất của Kaspersky Lab
Kaspersky Antivirus : cung cấp giải pháp chống lại các virus, mã độc nguy hiểm ngày nay với khả năng bảo vệ cơ bản, phù hợp với người dùng máy tính với nhu cầu cơ bản. Đây là giải pháp phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus đơn giản nhưng mang lại khả năng bảo vệ tốt nhất, hiệu suất tốt nhất cho nhiều người dùng máy tính hiện nay.
Kaspersky Internet Security for PC (Windows) kết hợp khả năng chống virus của Kaspersky Anti-Virus với khả năng chống spyware, hackers, spam, parental… kèm theo nhiều tính năng bảo vệ người dùng hệ điều hành Windows có nhu cầu sử dụng Internet thường xuyên. Đây là phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus được nhiều người dùng tin dùng nhất hiện nay với khả năng bảo vệ đa phương diện từ máy tính cơ bản đến các hoạt động trực tuyến, giúp bảo vệ người dùng khỏi hàng loạt các phần mềm virus độc hại tinh vi đang không ngừng biến thể và nguy hiểm hơn. Xem thêm hiệu năng và các tính năng đặc biệt của Kaspersky Antivirus tại đây.
Kaspersky Internet Security for Mac là phiên bản Kaspersky Internet Security dành riêng cho máy Mac, tích hợp khả năng chống các loại phần mềm độc hại của Kaspersky Internet Security nhưng hoàn toàn tương thích với hệ điều hành Mac, giúp bảo vệ tối ưu cho người dùng Mac.
Kaspersky Internet Security for Android là giải pháp bảo mật dành cho thiết bị cầm tay như điện thoại di động, smartphone và máy tính bảng đang sử dụng hệ điều hành Android, giúp bảo vệ hoàn hảo cho người dùng thiết bị khỏi mọi nguy cơ an ninh mạng tấn công
Kaspersky Total Security bảo vệ đa năng toàn diện cho tất cả các thiết bị PC, máy Mac, Android, iPhone & iPad trong gia đình. Phù hợp cho người thường xuyên sử dụng máy tính và thực hiện các giao dịch tài chính và cho trẻ em sử dụng máy tính.
Phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus miễn phí tốt nhất hiện nay
Nếu bạn đang tìm kiếm phần mềm diệt virus miễn phí giúp loại bỏ các phần mềm độc hại, virus hiện nay thì đừng nên bỏ qua các dòng sản phẩm phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus hỗ trợ miễn phí từ Kaspersky Lab.
Công cụ Kaspersky Virus Removal Tool – công cụ quét virus miễn phí từ Kaspersky. Đây là một ứng dụng được Kaspersky Lab thiết kế với mục đích quét virus cho máy tính của người dùng, đang được cung cấp miễn phí bởi Kaspersky Lab. Ứng dụng sẽ phát hiện và gỡ bỏ những phần mềm độc hại, phần mềm gián điệp, virus, trojan, rootkit trên máy tính. Bạn có thể xem thêm thông tin về phần mềm diệt virus miễn phí Kaspersky Virus Removal Tool tại đây.
Kaspersky Free – phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus miễn phí được Kaspersky Lab phát hành nhằm giúp bảo vệ máy tính của người dùng khỏi các virus độc hại, ngoài ra phần mềm còn ngăn chặn các tập tin và ứng dụng độc hại, nhanh chóng cảnh báo người dùng khỏi các trang web độc hại.
Phần mềm diệt virus Kaspersky Free sử dụng công nghệ bảo mật đạt giải thưởng của Kaspersky và tự động nhận các dữ liệu diệt virus theo thời gian thực nhằm cảnh báo các mối nguy hiểm mới. Bên cạnh đó, phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus miễn phí Kaspersky Free còn được thiết kế bảo vệ máy tính của người dùng mà không làm chậm máy tính. Có thể nói đây là một trong các phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus miễn phí mạnh nhất và tốt nhất hiện nay.
Ngoài ra nếu bạn chưa từng sử dụng một trong các dòng sản phẩm Kaspersky Antivirus, Kaspersky Internet Security, Kaspersky Total Security, bạn còn có cơ hội trải nghiệm phần mềm diệt virus – antivirus tốt nhất với 30 ngày dùng thử miễn phí bằng cách tải tại đây.
Hy vọng với bài viết này, Kaspersky Proguide đã cung cấp toàn diện các thông tin hữu ích về antivirus cũng như giúp bạn lựa chọn ra phần mềm diệt virus phù hợp nhất cho máy tính của bạn.
Chúc bạn thành công!
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Avast Free Antivirus là gì? Sử dụng có tốt không?
Avast Free Antivirus là gì? Sử dụng có tốt không? là câu hỏi được đề ra của rất nhiều người khi vừa biết đến phần mềm diệt virus cho máy tính này. Trên thực tế, đây là một trong những phần mềm có độ phổ biến cao và hầu như luôn nhận được những đánh giá tích cực trong khi sử dụng.
Tuy nhiên, trong bài này Long Vân System Solution sẽ một lần nữa chia sẻ với bạn tất tần tật về những thông tin về phần mềm hữu ích này để những ai đang tìm hiểu có cái nhìn tổng quan và thiết thực hơn, sau đó đưa ra sự lựa chọn phù hợp nhất cho mình. Hãy cùng xem nhé.Khái niệm Avast Free Antivirus là gì?
Avast Free Antivirus là phần mềm diệt virus chuyên dụng được hình thành nên bởi các kỹ sư có chuyên môn cao đến từ hãng phần mềm Avast Software nổi tiếng đến từ Cộng Hòa Séc. Những tính năng được tích hợp trong phần mềm này đều giúp đảm bảo cho chiếc máy tính của bất kỳ ai chống khỏi sự xâm nhập của các virus gây hại cho máy tính.
Giao diện của Avast Free Antivirus cũng tương đối đơn giản và phù hợp với bất kỳ ai khi sử dụng. Đặc biệt là phần mềm này cũng được xuất bản với dạng miễn phí đến người dùng, tuy nhiên cũng sẽ cần thao tác đăng ký bản dùng miễn phí để được sử dụng như vậy, nếu không thì phần mềm sẽ tự động hết hạn sau 30 ngày.Avast free antivirus có tốt không?
Với một số thông tin có được từ phần khái niệm thì có lẽ bạn cũng phần nào đó hiểu được rằng đây là một phần mềm bảo vệ máy rất tốt và những điều này sẽ được thể hiện thông qua những ứng dụng thực tế như sau:
1. Scan máy tính
Khi thực hiện tính năng này thì phần mềm sẽ tự động quét virus, phần mềm trên toàn bộ máy, nếu phát hiện có virus thì sẽ tự động tiêu diệt và thông báo chi tiết đến với bạn. Bạn sẽ có thể hoàn toàn tự mình xem xét về những phần mềm độc hại để hạn chế sử dụng về sau.
2. Bảo mật cá nhân trên máy tính
Tính năng tiếp theo đó là Private được dùng để bảo mật thông tin cá nhân của người sử dụng như: Ngăn chặn webcam gián điệp, được duyệt ở chế độ riêng tư. Phần Password sẽ đưa ra những tùy chọn thích hợp để cảnh báo khi mật khẩu bị rò rỉ, bạn có thể vào từng web đã truy cập trên trình duyệt để xem địa chỉ web, tên đăng nhập, hiển thị mật khẩu.
3. Cải thiện hiệu suất và tăng tốc độ máy tính
Tất cả những file rác hoặc phần mềm khiến chiếc máy tính của bạn bị chậm đều sẽ bị xóa hoặc tạm ngưng ( phần mềm ) để giúp tăng tốc độ hoạt động của máy tính lên tối đa. Đi kèm với đó là tính năng cho những ai yêu thích chơi game nhưng không muốn bị những thông báo làm phiền, thao tác rất đơn giản để hỗ trợ tối đa nhu cầu của người dùng.
Ngoài ra sẽ có những tiện ích tiện dụng trong việc tùy chọn như thiết lập ngôn ngữ, tùy chọn về âm thanh, chức năng cập nhật và kích hoạt bản quyền, đồng bộ hóa mật khẩu để sử dụng tùy ý theo mong muốn của mình.
Đó là tất cả những thông tin hữu ích để giải đáp câu trả lời Avast Free Antivirus là gì? Sử dụng có tốt không? của đa phần những ai đang tìm hiểu về phần mềm này. Nếu trong quá trình tham khảo có phần nào chưa hiểu rõ thì bạn có thể để lại bình luận bên dưới hoặc liên hệ ngay với Long Vân để được giải đáp chi tiết nhất nhé.
Tác giả: Le Nam
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigation Jump to search”Antivirus” redirects here. For the medication, see Antiviral drug.
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ClamTk, an open source antivirus based on the ClamAV antivirus engine, originally developed by Tomasz Kojm in 2001
Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.
Antivirus software was originally developed to detect and remove computer viruses, hence the name. However, with the proliferation of other kinds of malware, antivirus software started to provide protection from other computer threats. In particular, modern antivirus software can protect users from: malicious browser helper objects (BHOs), browser hijackers, ransomware, keyloggers, backdoors, rootkits, trojan horses, worms, malicious LSPs, dialers, fraudtools, adware and spyware. Some products also include protection from other computer threats, such as infected and malicious URLs, spam, scam and phishing attacks, online identity (privacy), online banking attacks, social engineering techniques, advanced persistent threat (APT) and botnet DDoS attacks.HistoryFurther information: History of computer virusesSee also: Timeline of notable computer viruses and worms
1949–1980 period (pre-antivirus days)
Although the roots of the computer virus date back as early as 1949, when the Hungarian scientist John von Neumann published the “Theory of self-reproducing automata”, the first known computer virus appeared in 1971 and was dubbed the “Creeper virus”. This computer virus infected Digital Equipment Corporation’s (DEC) PDP-10 mainframe computers running the TENEX operating system.
The Creeper virus was eventually deleted by a program created by Ray Tomlinson and known as “The Reaper”. Some people consider “The Reaper” the first antivirus software ever written – it may be the case, but it is important to note that the Reaper was actually a virus itself specifically designed to remove the Creeper virus.
The Creeper virus was followed by several other viruses. The first known that appeared “in the wild” was “Elk Cloner”, in 1981, which infected Apple II computers.
In 1983, the term “computer virus” was coined by Fred Cohen in one of the first ever published academic papers on computer viruses. Cohen used the term “computer virus” to describe a program that: “affect other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a (possibly evolved) copy of itself.” (note that a more recent, and precise, definition of computer virus has been given by the Hungarian security researcher Péter Szőr: “a code that recursively replicates a possibly evolved copy of itself”).
The first IBM PC compatible “in the wild” computer virus, and one of the first real widespread infections, was “Brain” in 1986. From then, the number of viruses has grown exponentially. Most of the computer viruses written in the early and mid-1980s were limited to self-reproduction and had no specific damage routine built into the code. That changed when more and more programmers became acquainted with computer virus programming and created viruses that manipulated or even destroyed data on infected computers.
Before internet connectivity was widespread, computer viruses were typically spread by infected floppy disks. Antivirus software came into use, but was updated relatively infrequently. During this time, virus checkers essentially had to check executable files and the boot sectors of floppy disks and hard disks. However, as internet usage became common, viruses began to spread online.
1980–1990 period (early days)
There are competing claims for the innovator of the first antivirus product. Possibly, the first publicly documented removal of an “in the wild” computer virus (i.e. the “Vienna virus”) was performed by Bernd Fix in 1987.
In 1987, Andreas Lüning and Kai Figge, who founded G Data Software in 1985, released their first antivirus product for the Atari ST platform. In 1987, the Ultimate Virus Killer (UVK) was also released. This was the de facto industry standard virus killer for the Atari ST and Atari Falcon, the last version of which (version 9.0) was released in April 2004. In 1987, in the United States, John McAfee founded the McAfee company (was part of Intel Security) and, at the end of that year, he released the first version of VirusScan. Also in 1987 (in Czechoslovakia), Peter Paško, Rudolf Hrubý, and Miroslav Trnka created the first version of NOD antivirus.
In 1987, Fred Cohen wrote that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible computer viruses.
Finally, at the end of 1987, the first two heuristic antivirus utilities were released: Flushot Plus by Ross Greenberg and Anti4us by Erwin Lanting. In his O’Reilly book, Malicious Mobile Code: Virus Protection for Windows, Roger Grimes described Flushot Plus as “the first holistic program to fight malicious mobile code (MMC).”
However, the kind of heuristic used by early AV engines was totally different from those used today. The first product with a heuristic engine resembling modern ones was F-PROT in 1991. Early heuristic engines were based on dividing the binary into different sections: data section, code section (in a legitimate binary, it usually starts always from the same location). Indeed, the initial viruses re-organized the layout of the sections, or overrode the initial portion of a section in order to jump to the very end of the file where malicious code was located—only going back to resume execution of the original code. This was a very specific pattern, not used at the time by any legitimate software, which represented an elegant heuristic to catch suspicious code. Other kinds of more advanced heuristics were later added, such as suspicious section names, incorrect header size, regular expressions, and partial pattern in-memory matching.
In 1988, the growth of antivirus companies continued. In Germany, Tjark Auerbach founded Avira (H+BEDV at the time) and released the first version of AntiVir (named “Luke Filewalker” at the time). In Bulgaria, Vesselin Bontchev released his first freeware antivirus program (he later joined FRISK Software). Also Frans Veldman released the first version of ThunderByte Antivirus, also known as TBAV (he sold his company to Norman Safeground in 1998). In Czechoslovakia, Pavel Baudiš and Eduard Kučera started avast! (at the time ALWIL Software) and released their first version of avast! antivirus. In June 1988, in South Korea, Ahn Cheol-Soo released its first antivirus software, called V1 (he founded AhnLab later in 1995). Finally, in the Autumn 1988, in United Kingdom, Alan Solomon founded S&S International and created his Dr. Solomon’s Anti-Virus Toolkit (although he launched it commercially only in 1991 – in 1998 Solomon’s company was acquired by McAfee). In November 1988 a professor at the Panamerican University in Mexico City named Alejandro E. Carriles copyrighted the first antivirus software in Mexico under the name “Byte Matabichos” (Byte Bugkiller) to help solve the rampant virus infestation among students.
Also in 1988, a mailing list named VIRUS-L was started on the BITNET/EARN network where new viruses and the possibilities of detecting and eliminating viruses were discussed. Some members of this mailing list were: Alan Solomon, Eugene Kaspersky (Kaspersky Lab), Friðrik Skúlason (FRISK Software), John McAfee (McAfee), Luis Corrons (Panda Security), Mikko Hyppönen (F-Secure), Péter Szőr, Tjark Auerbach (Avira) and Vesselin Bontchev (FRISK Software).
In 1989, in Iceland, Friðrik Skúlason created the first version of F-PROT Anti-Virus (he founded FRISK Software only in 1993). Meanwhile in the United States, Symantec (founded by Gary Hendrix in 1982) launched its first Symantec antivirus for Macintosh (SAM). SAM 2.0, released March 1990, incorporated technology allowing users to easily update SAM to intercept and eliminate new viruses, including many that didn’t exist at the time of the program’s release.
In the end of the 1980s, in United Kingdom, Jan Hruska and Peter Lammer founded the security firm Sophos and began producing their first antivirus and encryption products. In the same period, in Hungary, also VirusBuster was founded (which has recently being incorporated by Sophos).
1990–2000 period (emergence of the antivirus industry)
In 1990, in Spain, Mikel Urizarbarrena founded Panda Security (Panda Software at the time). In Hungary, the security researcher Péter Szőr released the first version of Pasteur antivirus. In Italy, Gianfranco Tonello created the first version of VirIT eXplorer antivirus, then founded TG Soft one year later.
In 1990, the Computer Antivirus Research Organization (CARO) was founded. In 1991, CARO released the “Virus Naming Scheme”, originally written by Friðrik Skúlason and Vesselin Bontchev. Although this naming scheme is now outdated, it remains the only existing standard that most computer security companies and researchers ever attempted to adopt. CARO members includes: Alan Solomon, Costin Raiu, Dmitry Gryaznov, Eugene Kaspersky, Friðrik Skúlason, Igor Muttik, Mikko Hyppönen, Morton Swimmer, Nick FitzGerald, Padgett Peterson, Peter Ferrie, Righard Zwienenberg and Vesselin Bontchev.
In 1991, in the United States, Symantec released the first version of Norton AntiVirus. In the same year, in the Czech Republic, Jan Gritzbach and Tomáš Hofer founded AVG Technologies (Grisoft at the time), although they released the first version of their Anti-Virus Guard (AVG) only in 1992. On the other hand, in Finland, F-Secure (founded in 1988 by Petri Allas and Risto Siilasmaa – with the name of Data Fellows) released the first version of their antivirus product. F-Secure claims to be the first antivirus firm to establish a presence on the World Wide Web.
In 1991, the European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research (EICAR) was founded to further antivirus research and improve development of antivirus software.
In 1992, in Russia, Igor Danilov released the first version of SpiderWeb, which later became Dr. Web.
In 1994, AV-TEST reported that there were 28,613 unique malware samples (based on MD5) in their database.
Over time other companies were founded. In 1996, in Romania, Bitdefender was founded and released the first version of Anti-Virus eXpert (AVX). In 1997, in Russia, Eugene Kaspersky and Natalya Kaspersky co-founded security firm Kaspersky Lab.
In 1996, there was also the first “in the wild” Linux virus, known as “Staog”.
In 1999, AV-TEST reported that there were 98,428 unique malware samples (based on MD5) in their database.
In 2000, Rainer Link and Howard Fuhs started the first open source antivirus engine, called OpenAntivirus Project.
In 2001, Tomasz Kojm released the first version of ClamAV, the first ever open source antivirus engine to be commercialised. In 2007, ClamAV was bought by Sourcefire, which in turn was acquired by Cisco Systems in 2013.
In 2002, in United Kingdom, Morten Lund and Theis Søndergaard co-founded the antivirus firm BullGuard.
In 2005, AV-TEST reported that there were 333,425 unique malware samples (based on MD5) in their database.
In 2007, AV-TEST reported a number of 5,490,960 new unique malware samples (based on MD5) only for that year. In 2012 and 2013, antivirus firms reported a new malware samples range from 300,000 to over 500,000 per day.
Over the years it has become necessary for antivirus software to use several different strategies (e.g. specific email and network protection or low level modules) and detection algorithms, as well as to check an increasing variety of files, rather than just executables, for several reasons:
- Powerful macros used in word processor applications, such as Microsoft Word, presented a risk. Virus writers could use the macros to write viruses embedded within documents. This meant that computers could now also be at risk from infection by opening documents with hidden attached macros.
- The possibility of embedding executable objects inside otherwise non-executable file formats can make opening those files a risk.
- Later email programs, in particular Microsoft’s Outlook Express and Outlook, were vulnerable to viruses embedded in the email body itself. A user’s computer could be infected by just opening or previewing a message.
In 2005, F-Secure was the first security firm that developed an Anti-Rootkit technology, called BlackLight.
Because most users are usually connected to the Internet on a continual basis, Jon Oberheide first proposed a Cloud-based antivirus design in 2008.
In February 2008 McAfee Labs added the industry-first cloud-based anti-malware functionality to VirusScan under the name Artemis. It was tested by AV-Comparatives in February 2008 and officially unveiled in August 2008 in McAfee VirusScan.
Cloud AV created problems for comparative testing of security software – part of the AV definitions was out of testers control (on constantly updated AV company servers) thus making results non-repeatable. As a result, Anti-Malware Testing Standards Organisation (AMTSO) started working on method of testing cloud products which was adopted on May 7, 2009.
In 2011, AVG introduced a similar cloud service, called Protective Cloud Technology.
2014–present (rise of next-gen)
Following the 2013 release of the APT 1 report from Mandiant, the industry has seen a shift towards signature-less approaches to the problem capable of detecting and mitigating zero-day attacks. Numerous approaches to address these new forms of threats have appeared, including behavioral detection, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and cloud-based file detonation. According to Gartner, it is expected the rise of new entrants, such Carbon Black, Cylance and Crowdstrike will force EPP incumbents into a new phase of innovation and acquisition. One method from Bromium involves micro-virtualization to protect desktops from malicious code execution initiated by the end user. Another approach from SentinelOne and Carbon Black focuses on behavioral detection by building a full context around every process execution path in real time, while Cylance leverages an artificial intelligence model based on machine learning. Increasingly, these signature-less approaches have been defined by the media and analyst firms as “next-generation” antivirus and are seeing rapid market adoption as certified antivirus replacement technologies by firms such as Coalfire and DirectDefense. In response, traditional antivirus vendors such as Trend Micro, Symantec and Sophos have responded by incorporating “next-gen” offerings into their portfolios as analyst firms such as Forrester and Gartner have called traditional signature-based antivirus “ineffective” and “outdated”.Identification methods
One of the few solid theoretical results in the study of computer viruses is Frederick B. Cohen’s 1987 demonstration that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all possible viruses. However, using different layers of defense, a good detection rate may be achieved.
There are several methods which antivirus engines can use to identify malware:
- Sandbox detection: a particular behavioural-based detection technique that, instead of detecting the behavioural fingerprint at run time, it executes the programs in a virtual environment, logging what actions the program performs. Depending on the actions logged, the antivirus engine can determine if the program is malicious or not. If not, then, the program is executed in the real environment. Albeit this technique has shown to be quite effective, given its heaviness and slowness, it is rarely used in end-user antivirus solutions.
- Data mining techniques: one of the latest approaches applied in malware detection. Data mining and machine learning algorithms are used to try to classify the behaviour of a file (as either malicious or benign) given a series of file features, that are extracted from the file itself.
Traditional antivirus software relies heavily upon signatures to identify malware.
Substantially, when a malware arrives in the hands of an antivirus firm, it is analysed by malware researchers or by dynamic analysis systems. Then, once it is determined to be a malware, a proper signature of the file is extracted and added to the signatures database of the antivirus software.
Although the signature-based approach can effectively contain malware outbreaks, malware authors have tried to stay a step ahead of such software by writing “oligomorphic”, “polymorphic” and, more recently, “metamorphic” viruses, which encrypt parts of themselves or otherwise modify themselves as a method of disguise, so as to not match virus signatures in the dictionary.
Many viruses start as a single infection and through either mutation or refinements by other attackers, can grow into dozens of slightly different strains, called variants. Generic detection refers to the detection and removal of multiple threats using a single virus definition.
For example, the Vundo trojan has several family members, depending on the antivirus vendor’s classification. Symantec classifies members of the Vundo family into two distinct categories, Trojan.Vundo and Trojan.Vundo.B.
While it may be advantageous to identify a specific virus, it can be quicker to detect a virus family through a generic signature or through an inexact match to an existing signature. Virus researchers find common areas that all viruses in a family share uniquely and can thus create a single generic signature. These signatures often contain non-contiguous code, using wildcard characters where differences lie. These wildcards allow the scanner to detect viruses even if they are padded with extra, meaningless code. A detection that uses this method is said to be “heuristic detection.”
Main article: Rootkit
Anti-virus software can attempt to scan for rootkits. A rootkit is a type of malware designed to gain administrative-level control over a computer system without being detected. Rootkits can change how the operating system functions and in some cases can tamper with the anti-virus program and render it ineffective. Rootkits are also difficult to remove, in some cases requiring a complete re-installation of the operating system.
Real-time protection, on-access scanning, background guard, resident shield, autoprotect, and other synonyms refer to the automatic protection provided by most antivirus, anti-spyware, and other anti-malware programs. This monitors computer systems for suspicious activity such as computer viruses, spyware, adware, and other malicious objects. Real-time protection detects threats in opened files and scans apps in real-time as they are installed on the device. When inserting a CD, opening an email, or browsing the web, or when a file already on the computer is opened or executed.Issues of concern
Unexpected renewal costs
Some commercial antivirus software end-user license agreements include a clause that the subscription will be automatically renewed, and the purchaser’s credit card automatically billed, at the renewal time without explicit approval. For example, McAfee requires users to unsubscribe at least 60 days before the expiration of the present subscription while BitDefender sends notifications to unsubscribe 30 days before the renewal. Norton AntiVirus also renews subscriptions automatically by default.
Rogue security applications
Main article: Rogue security software
Some apparent antivirus programs are actually malware masquerading as legitimate software, such as WinFixer, MS Antivirus, and Mac Defender.
Problems caused by false positives
A “false positive” or “false alarm” is when antivirus software identifies a non-malicious file as malware. When this happens, it can cause serious problems. For example, if an antivirus program is configured to immediately delete or quarantine infected files, as is common on Microsoft Windows antivirus applications, a false positive in an essential file can render the Windows operating system or some applications unusable. Recovering from such damage to critical software infrastructure incurs technical support costs and businesses can be forced to close whilst remedial action is undertaken.
Examples of serious false-positives:
- May 2007: a faulty virus signature issued by Symantec mistakenly removed essential operating system files, leaving thousands of PCs unable to boot.
- May 2007: the executable file required by Pegasus Mail on Windows was falsely detected by Norton AntiVirus as being a Trojan and it was automatically removed, preventing Pegasus Mail from running. Norton AntiVirus had falsely identified three releases of Pegasus Mail as malware, and would delete the Pegasus Mail installer file when that happened. In response to this Pegasus Mail stated:
On the basis that Norton/Symantec has done this for every one of the last three releases of Pegasus Mail, we can only condemn this product as too flawed to use, and recommend in the strongest terms that our users cease using it in favour of alternative, less buggy anti-virus packages.
- April 2010: McAfee VirusScan detected svchost.exe, a normal Windows binary, as a virus on machines running Windows XP with Service Pack 3, causing a reboot loop and loss of all network access.
- December 2010: a faulty update on the AVG anti-virus suite damaged 64-bit versions of Windows 7, rendering it unable to boot, due to an endless boot loop created.
- October 2011: Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE) removed the Google Chrome web browser, rival to Microsoft’s own Internet Explorer. MSE flagged Chrome as a Zbot banking trojan.
- September 2012: Sophos’ anti-virus suite identified various update-mechanisms, including its own, as malware. If it was configured to automatically delete detected files, Sophos Antivirus could render itself unable to update, required manual intervention to fix the problem.
- September 2017: the Google Play Protect anti-virus started identifying Motorola’s Moto G4 Bluetooth application as malware, causing Bluetooth functionality to become disabled.
System and interoperability related issues
Running (the real-time protection of) multiple antivirus programs concurrently can degrade performance and create conflicts. However, using a concept called multiscanning, several companies (including G Data Software and Microsoft) have created applications which can run multiple engines concurrently.
It is sometimes necessary to temporarily disable virus protection when installing major updates such as Windows Service Packs or updating graphics card drivers. Active antivirus protection may partially or completely prevent the installation of a major update. Anti-virus software can cause problems during the installation of an operating system upgrade, e.g. when upgrading to a newer version of Windows “in place”—without erasing the previous version of Windows. Microsoft recommends that anti-virus software be disabled to avoid conflicts with the upgrade installation process. Active anti-virus software can also interfere with a firmware update process.
The functionality of a few computer programs can be hampered by active anti-virus software. For example, TrueCrypt, a disk encryption program, states on its troubleshooting page that anti-virus programs can conflict with TrueCrypt and cause it to malfunction or operate very slowly. Anti-virus software can impair the performance and stability of games running in the Steam platform.
Support issues also exist around antivirus application interoperability with common solutions like SSL VPN remote access and network access control products. These technology solutions often have policy assessment applications that require an up-to-date antivirus to be installed and running. If the antivirus application is not recognized by the policy assessment, whether because the antivirus application has been updated or because it is not part of the policy assessment library, the user will be unable to connect.
Studies in December 2007 showed that the effectiveness of antivirus software had decreased in the previous year, particularly against unknown or zero day attacks. The computer magazine c’t found that detection rates for these threats had dropped from 40 to 50% in 2006 to 20–30% in 2007. At that time, the only exception was the NOD32 antivirus, which managed a detection rate of 68%. According to the ZeuS tracker website the average detection rate for all variants of the well-known ZeuS trojan is as low as 40%.
The problem is magnified by the changing intent of virus authors. Some years ago it was obvious when a virus infection was present. At the time, viruses were written by amateurs and exhibited destructive behavior or pop-ups. Modern viruses are often written by professionals, financed by criminal organizations.
In 2008, Eva Chen, CEO of Trend Micro, stated that the anti-virus industry has over-hyped how effective its products are—and so has been misleading customers—for years.
Independent testing on all the major virus scanners consistently shows that none provides 100% virus detection. The best ones provided as high as 99.9% detection for simulated real-world situations, while the lowest provided 91.1% in tests conducted in August 2013. Many virus scanners produce false positive results as well, identifying benign files as malware.
Although methods may differ, some notable independent quality testing agencies include AV-Comparatives, ICSA Labs, West Coast Labs, Virus Bulletin, AV-TEST and other members of the Anti-Malware Testing Standards Organization.
Anti-virus programs are not always effective against new viruses, even those that use non-signature-based methods that should detect new viruses. The reason for this is that the virus designers test their new viruses on the major anti-virus applications to make sure that they are not detected before releasing them into the wild.
Some new viruses, particularly ransomware, use polymorphic code to avoid detection by virus scanners. Jerome Segura, a security analyst with ParetoLogic, explained:
It’s something that they miss a lot of the time because this type of [ransomware virus] comes from sites that use a polymorphism, which means they basically randomize the file they send you and it gets by well-known antivirus products very easily. I’ve seen people firsthand getting infected, having all the pop-ups and yet they have antivirus software running and it’s not detecting anything. It actually can be pretty hard to get rid of, as well, and you’re never really sure if it’s really gone. When we see something like that usually we advise to reinstall the operating system or reinstall backups.
A proof of concept virus has used the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to avoid detection from anti-virus software. The potential success of this involves bypassing the CPU in order to make it much harder for security researchers to analyse the inner workings of such malware.
Detecting rootkits is a major challenge for anti-virus programs. Rootkits have full administrative access to the computer and are invisible to users and hidden from the list of running processes in the task manager. Rootkits can modify the inner workings of the operating system and tamper with antivirus programs.
If a file has been infected by a computer virus, anti-virus software will attempt to remove the virus code from the file during disinfection, but it is not always able to restore the file to its undamaged state. In such circumstances, damaged files can only be restored from existing backups or shadow copies (this is also true for ransomware); installed software that is damaged requires re-installation (however, see System File Checker).
Any writeable firmware in the computer can be infected by malicious code. This is a major concern, as an infected BIOS could require the actual BIOS chip to be replaced to ensure the malicious code is completely removed. Anti-virus software is not effective at protecting firmware and the motherboard BIOS from infection. In 2014, security researchers discovered that USB devices contain writeable firmware which can be modified with malicious code (dubbed “BadUSB”), which anti-virus software cannot detect or prevent. The malicious code can run undetected on the computer and could even infect the operating system prior to it booting up.Performance and other drawbacks
Antivirus software has some drawbacks, first of which that it can impact a computer’s performance.
Furthermore, inexperienced users can be lulled into a false sense of security when using the computer, considering their computers to be invulnerable, and may have problems understanding the prompts and decisions that antivirus software presents them with. An incorrect decision may lead to a security breach. If the antivirus software employs heuristic detection, it must be fine-tuned to minimize misidentifying harmless software as malicious (false positive).
Antivirus software itself usually runs at the highly trusted kernel level of the operating system to allow it access to all the potential malicious process and files, creating a potential avenue of attack. The US National Security Agency (NSA) and the UK Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) intelligence agencies, respectively, have been exploiting anti-virus software to spy on users. Anti-virus software has highly privileged and trusted access to the underlying operating system, which makes it a much more appealing target for remote attacks. Additionally anti-virus software is “years behind security-conscious client-side applications like browsers or document readers. It means that Acrobat Reader, Microsoft Word or Google Chrome are harder to exploit than 90 percent of the anti-virus products out there”, according to Joxean Koret, a researcher with Coseinc, a Singapore-based information security consultancy.Alternative solutionsThe command-line virus scanner of Clam AV 0.95.2 running a virus signature definition update, scanning a file, and identifying a Trojan.
Antivirus software running on individual computers is the most common method employed of guarding against malware, but it is not the only solution. Other solutions can also be employed by users, including Unified Threat Management (UTM), hardware and network firewalls, Cloud-based antivirus and online scanners.
Hardware and network firewall
Network firewalls prevent unknown programs and processes from accessing the system. However, they are not antivirus systems and make no attempt to identify or remove anything. They may protect against infection from outside the protected computer or network, and limit the activity of any malicious software which is present by blocking incoming or outgoing requests on certain TCP/IP ports. A firewall is designed to deal with broader system threats that come from network connections into the system and is not an alternative to a virus protection system.
Cloud antivirus is a technology that uses lightweight agent software on the protected computer, while offloading the majority of data analysis to the provider’s infrastructure.
One approach to implementing cloud antivirus involves scanning suspicious files using multiple antivirus engines. This approach was proposed by an early implementation of the cloud antivirus concept called CloudAV. CloudAV was designed to send programs or documents to a network cloud where multiple antivirus and behavioral detection programs are used simultaneously in order to improve detection rates. Parallel scanning of files using potentially incompatible antivirus scanners is achieved by spawning a virtual machine per detection engine and therefore eliminating any possible issues. CloudAV can also perform “retrospective detection,” whereby the cloud detection engine rescans all files in its file access history when a new threat is identified thus improving new threat detection speed. Finally, CloudAV is a solution for effective virus scanning on devices that lack the computing power to perform the scans themselves.
Some examples of cloud anti-virus products are Panda Cloud Antivirus and Immunet. Comodo Group has also produced cloud-based anti-virus.
Some antivirus vendors maintain websites with free online scanning capability of the entire computer, critical areas only, local disks, folders or files. Periodic online scanning is a good idea for those that run antivirus applications on their computers because those applications are frequently slow to catch threats. One of the first things that malicious software does in an attack is disable any existing antivirus software and sometimes the only way to know of an attack is by turning to an online resource that is not installed on the infected computer.
The command-line rkhunter scanner, an engine to scan for Linux rootkits running on Ubuntu.
Virus removal tools are available to help remove stubborn infections or certain types of infection. Examples include Avast Free Anti- Malware, AVG Free Malware Removal Tools, and Avira AntiVir Removal Tool. It is also worth noting that sometimes antivirus software can produce a false positive result, indicating an infection where there is none.
A rescue disk that is bootable, such as a CD or USB storage device, can be used to run antivirus software outside of the installed operating system, in order to remove infections while they are dormant. A bootable antivirus disk can be useful when, for example, the installed operating system is no longer bootable or has malware that is resisting all attempts to be removed by the installed antivirus software. Examples of some of these bootable disks include the Bitdefender Rescue CD, Kaspersky Rescue Disk 2018, and Windows Defender Offline (integrated into Windows 10 since the Anniversary Update). Most of the Rescue CD software can also be installed onto a USB storage device, that is bootable on newer computers.Usage and risks
According to an FBI survey, major businesses lose $12 million annually dealing with virus incidents. A survey by Symantec in 2009 found that a third of small to medium-sized business did not use antivirus protection at that time, whereas more than 80% of home users had some kind of antivirus installed. According to a sociological survey conducted by G Data Software in 2010 49% of women did not use any antivirus program at all.See also
- Anti-virus and anti-malware software
- CARO, the Computer Antivirus Research Organization
- Comparison of antivirus software
- Comparison of computer viruses
- EICAR, the European Institute for Computer Antivirus Research
- Firewall software
- Internet security
- Linux malware
- Quarantine (computing)
- Sandbox (computer security)
- Timeline of computer viruses and worms
- Virus hoax
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Ý nghĩa của anti-virus trong tiếng Anh
anti-virusadjective [ before noun ] ITuk /ˌæntiˈvaɪərəs/ us /ˌæntaɪ-/(abbreviation AV)protecting against computer viruses:Update your anti-virus software regularly.an anti-virus program/tool/utilityanti-virus protection
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Học các từ bạn cần giao tiếp một cách tự tin.involved in the production of products that protect against computer viruses:Anti-virus companies have been tracking the virus.Các ví dụ của anti-virusanti-virusPhát âm của anti-virus là gì? Tìm kiếmanti-terroristanti-theftanti-traffickinganti-vaxanti-virusanti-warantiarrhythmic BETAantibacterialantibiosis BETA
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