commonwealth là gì đang được nhiều người tìm kiếm. 123 DocX.123 DocX gửi tới các bạn bài viết Commonwealth là gì |Tất tần tật về commonwealth . Cùng123 DocX tìm hiểu ngay thôi
Từ Wikipedia, bách khoa toàn thư miễn phí Không nên nhầm lẫn nó với lãnh thổ của Khối thịnh vượng chung hoặc Khối thịnh vượng chung của các quốc gia độc lập. Đối với các mục đích sử dụng khác, xem Khối thịnh vượng chung (định hướng).
Khối thịnh vượng chung của các quốc gia , thường được gọi đơn giản là Khối thịnh vượng chung ,  là một hiệp hội chính trị của 54 quốc gia thành viên, hầu hết tất cả đều là lãnh thổ cũ của Đế quốc Anh.  Các cơ quan chính của tổ chức là Ban thư ký Khối thịnh vượng chung, cơ quan giải quyết các khía cạnh liên chính phủ, và Quỹ Khối thịnh vượng chung, giải quyết các mối quan hệ phi chính phủ giữa các quốc gia thành viên. 
Khối thịnh vượng chung có từ nửa đầu thế kỷ 20 với sự phi thực dân hóa của Đế chế Anh bằng cách củng cố chế độ tự trị trên các lãnh thổ của mình. Ban đầu nó được thành lập với tên gọi Khối thịnh vượng chung Anh  theo Tuyên bố Balfour tại Hội nghị Hoàng gia năm 1926 và được Vương quốc Anh chính thức hóa thông qua Quy chế Westminster vào năm 1931. Khối thịnh vượng chung hiện tại được chính thức thành lập theo Tuyên bố Luân Đôn năm 1931. Năm 1949, hiện đại hóa cộng đồng và làm cho các quốc gia thành viên “tự do và bình đẳng.” 
Người đứng đầu Khối thịnh vượng chung hiện nay là Nữ hoàng Elizabeth II; Cuộc họp Chính phủ của những người đứng đầu Khối thịnh vượng chung năm 2018 đã bổ nhiệm Charles, Hoàng tử xứ Wales, làm người kế vị được chỉ định của bà, mặc dù vị trí này không được kế thừa. Elizabeth II là người đứng đầu 15 quốc gia thành viên được gọi là các vương quốc của Khối thịnh vượng chung, trong khi 34 thành viên khác là các nước cộng hòa và 5 quốc gia khác có các quốc vương khác nhau. [tám]
Các quốc gia thành viên không có nghĩa vụ pháp lý với nhau, nhưng được liên kết với nhau bằng việc sử dụng ngôn ngữ tiếng Anh và các ràng buộc lịch sử. Các giá trị chung đã tuyên bố của họ về dân chủ, nhân quyền và pháp quyền được ghi nhận trong Hiến chương Khối thịnh vượng chung  và được thúc đẩy bởi Đại hội thể thao Khối thịnh vượng chung, được tổ chức bốn năm một lần. Lịch sử [sửa]
Nguồn gốc của khái niệm và sự hình thành của thuật ngữ
Các bài chi tiết: Đế chế Anh và Lịch sử của Đế chế Anh Các thủ tướng năm thành viên tại Hội nghị Thủ tướng Khối thịnh vượng chung năm 1944. (LR) Mackenzie King (Canada), Ian Smuts (Nam Phi), Winston Churchill (Anh), Peter Fraser (New Zealand) và John Curtin (Úc)
Nữ hoàng Elizabeth II, trong Bài diễn văn nhân Ngày thống trị năm 1959 tại Canada, đã lưu ý rằng Liên bang Canada vào ngày 1 tháng 7 năm 1867 là sự ra đời của “quốc gia độc lập đầu tiên trong Đế quốc Anh.” Bà tuyên bố, “Vì vậy, điều này cũng đánh dấu sự khởi đầu của sự liên kết tự do của các quốc gia độc lập mà ngày nay được gọi là Khối thịnh vượng chung của các quốc gia.”  Trở lại năm 1884, Lord Rosebury, trong một chuyến thăm đến Úc, đã mô tả Đế chế Anh đang thay đổi khi một số thuộc địa của nó trở nên độc lập hơn với cái tên “Khối thịnh vượng chung của các quốc gia”.  Hội nghị của các thủ tướng Anh và thuộc địa diễn ra theo định kỳ, bắt đầu từ lần đầu tiên vào năm 1887, dẫn đến việc thành lập các Hội nghị Hoàng gia vào năm 1911. 
Khối thịnh vượng chung phát triển từ các hội nghị đế quốc. Một đề xuất cụ thể được Ian Smuts đưa ra vào năm 1917, khi ông đặt ra thuật ngữ “Khối thịnh vượng chung của các quốc gia Anh” và đưa ra “các quan hệ hiến pháp trong tương lai và những điều chỉnh thực chất” tại Hội nghị Hòa bình Paris năm 1919, cũng có sự tham dự của các đại biểu Dominion. như Anh.   Thuật ngữ này lần đầu tiên nhận được sự công nhận về mặt lập pháp của đế quốc trong Hiệp ước Anh-Ireland năm 1921, khi thuật ngữ Khối thịnh vượng chung của các quốc gia được thay thế bằng Đế quốc Anh trong lời tuyên thệ được các Thành viên Nghị viện của Quốc gia Tự do Ireland thông qua. … 
Việc chấp nhận và chính thức hóa Khối thịnh vượng chung [sửa | chỉnh sửa mã]
Trong Tuyên bố Balfour tại Hội nghị Hoàng gia năm 1926, Vương quốc Anh và các nước Thống trị nhất trí rằng họ “bình đẳng về địa vị, không phục tùng nhau trong bất kỳ khía cạnh nào của công việc đối nội hoặc đối ngoại, mặc dù đoàn kết bởi lòng trung thành chung với Vương miện. và tự do liên kết với tư cách là thành viên của Khối thịnh vượng chung Anh ”. Thuật ngữ “Khối thịnh vượng chung” đã chính thức được thông qua để mô tả cộng đồng. [mười sáu]
Các khía cạnh này của mối quan hệ đã được chính thức hóa bằng Quy chế Westminster năm 1931, được áp dụng cho Canada mà không cần phê chuẩn, nhưng Úc, New Zealand và Newfoundland phải phê chuẩn quy chế này mới có hiệu lực. Newfoundland không bao giờ làm điều này, vì vào ngày 16 tháng 2 năm 1934, với sự đồng ý của quốc hội, chính phủ Newfoundland tự nguyện ngừng tồn tại và chính phủ trở lại quyền kiểm soát trực tiếp từ London. Newfoundland sau đó gia nhập Canada với tư cách là tỉnh thứ 10 vào năm 1949.  Úc và New Zealand lần lượt phê chuẩn Quy chế vào năm 1942 và 1947.  
Mặc dù Liên minh Nam Phi không phải là một trong những thống trị cần thông qua Quy chế Westminster để Quy chế này có hiệu lực, hai luật đã được thông qua – Đạo luật Tình trạng của Liên minh năm 1934 và Đạo luật Hành pháp và Con dấu của Hoàng gia năm 1934. xác nhận tình trạng của Nam Phi với tư cách là một quốc gia có chủ quyền. [hai mươi]
Phi thực dân hóa và tự chính phủ
Để có danh sách đầy đủ hơn, hãy xem Danh sách các quốc gia đã trở nên độc lập khỏi Vương quốc Anh.
Sau khi Chiến tranh thế giới thứ hai kết thúc, Đế quốc Anh dần tan rã. Hầu hết các thành phần của nó đã trở thành các quốc gia độc lập, có thể là các vương quốc hoặc các nước cộng hòa của Khối thịnh vượng chung, và các thành viên của Khối thịnh vượng chung. Vẫn còn 14 Lãnh thổ hải ngoại thuộc Anh tự quản phần lớn, các lãnh thổ này vẫn giữ một số quan hệ chính trị với Vương quốc Anh. Vào tháng 4 năm 1949, theo Tuyên bố Luân Đôn, từ “Anh” đã bị loại bỏ khỏi tên Khối thịnh vượng chung để phản ánh bản chất thay đổi của nó. 
Miến Điện (còn được gọi là Myanmar) và Aden (nay là một phần của Cộng hòa Yemen) là những quốc gia duy nhất từng là thuộc địa của Anh trong chiến tranh và không gia nhập Khối thịnh vượng chung sau khi độc lập. Các nước bảo hộ trước đây của Anh và các nước không thuộc Khối thịnh vượng chung là Ai Cập (độc lập năm 1922), Iraq (1932), Transjordan (1946), Palestine (một phần trở thành Nhà nước Israel năm 1948), Sudan (1956), Somaliland thuộc Anh (sáp nhập với Somaliland cũ của Ý vào năm 1960 để thành lập Cộng hòa Somali), Kuwait (1961), Bahrain (1971), Oman (1971), Qatar (1971) và Các Tiểu vương quốc Ả Rập Thống nhất (1971). 
Đã giảm vai trò
Послевоенное Содружество получило новую миссию от королевы Елизаветы II в своей радиопередаче на Рождество 1953 года, в которой она представила Содружество как «совершенно новую концепцию, построенную на высших качествах Духа человека: дружбе, верности и желании за свободу и мир».  Надежда на успех была подкреплена такими достижениями, как восхождение на Эверест в 1953 году, преодоление четырехминутной мили в 1954 году и одиночное кругосветное плавание в 1966 году. 
However, the humiliation of the Suez Crisis of 1956 badly hurt the morale of Britain and of the Commonwealth as a whole. More broadly, there was the loss of a central role of the British Empire: the defence of the Empire. That role was no longer militarily or financially feasible, as Britain’s withdrawal from Greece in 1947 had painfully demonstrated. Britain itself was now just one part of the NATO military alliance, in which the Commonwealth had no role apart from Canada. The ANZUS treaty of 1955 linked Australia, New Zealand, and the United States in a defensive alliance, with Britain and the Commonwealth left out.
The second major function of the Empire made London the financial centre of the system. After the Second World War, the British treasury was so weak that it could not operate independently of the United States. The loss of defence and financial roles, furthermore, undermined Joseph Chamberlain’s early 20th-century vision of a world empire that could combine Imperial preference, mutual defence, and social growth. In addition, Britain’s cosmopolitan role in world affairs became increasingly limited, especially with the losses of India and Singapore. While British politicians at first hoped that the Commonwealth would preserve and project British influence, they gradually lost their enthusiasm, argues Krishnan Srinivasan. Early enthusiasm waned as British policies came under fire at Commonwealth meetings. Public opinion became troubled as immigration from non-white member states became large-scale.
On 18 April 1949, Ireland formally became a republic in accordance with the Irish Republic of Ireland Act 1948; in doing so, it also formally left the Commonwealth. While Ireland had not actively participated in the Commonwealth since the early 1930s, other dominions wished to become republics without losing Commonwealth ties. The issue came to a head in April 1949 at a Commonwealth prime ministers’ meeting in London. Under the London Declaration, India agreed that, when it became a republic in January 1950, it would remain in the Commonwealth and accept the British Sovereign as a “symbol of the free association of its independent member nations and as such the Head of the Commonwealth”. Upon hearing this, King George VI told the Indian politician Krishna Menon: “So, I’ve become ‘as such’”. Other Commonwealth countries that have since become republics while members, such as Guyana, Mauritius and Dominica, have remained members.
The London Declaration is often seen as marking the beginning of the modern Commonwealth. Following India’s precedent, other nations became republics, or constitutional monarchies with their own monarchs. While some countries retained the same monarch as the United Kingdom, their monarchies developed differently and soon became essentially independent of the British monarchy. The monarch is regarded as a separate legal personality in each realm, even though the same person is monarch of each realm.
Planners in the interwar period, like Lord Davies, who had also taken “a prominent part in building up the League of Nations Union” in the United Kingdom, in 1932 founded the New Commonwealth Society, of whose British section Winston Churchill became the president. This new society was aimed at the creation of an international air force to be an arm of the League of Nations, to allow nations to disarm and safeguard the peace.
The term ‘New Commonwealth’ has been used in the UK (especially in the 1960s and 1970s) to refer to recently decolonised countries, predominantly non-white and developing. It was often used in debates about immigration from these countries. Britain and the pre-1945 dominions became informally known as the Old Commonwealth, or more pointedly as the ‘white Commonwealth’, in reference to the so-called ‘White Dominions’.
Plan G and inviting Europe to join
At a time when Germany and France, together with Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, were planning what later became the European Union, and newly independent African countries were joining the Commonwealth, new ideas were floated to prevent Britain from becoming isolated in economic affairs. British trade with the Commonwealth was four times larger than its trade with Europe. In 1956 and 1957 the British government under Prime Minister Anthony Eden considered a “Plan G” to create a European free trade zone while also protecting the favoured status of the Commonwealth. Britain also considered inviting Scandinavian and other European countries to join the Commonwealth, so that it would become a major economic common market.
At the time of the Suez Crisis in 1956, in the face of colonial unrest and international tensions, French prime minister Guy Mollet proposed to British prime minister Anthony Eden that their two countries be joined in a “union”. When that proposal was turned down, Mollet suggested that France join the Commonwealth, possibly with “a common citizenship arrangement on the Irish basis”. These ideas faded away with the end of the Suez Crisis.Structure
Head of the Commonwealth
Main article: Head of the CommonwealthQueen Elizabeth II, Head of the Commonwealth
Under the formula of the London Declaration, Queen Elizabeth II is the head of the Commonwealth, a title that is by law a part of Elizabeth’s royal titles in each of the Commonwealth realms, the 15 members of the Commonwealth that recognise her as their monarch. When the monarch dies, the successor to the crown does not automatically become the new head of the Commonwealth. However, at their meeting in April 2018, Commonwealth leaders agreed that Prince Charles should succeed his mother as head. The position is symbolic, representing the free association of independent members, the majority of which (34) are republics, and five have monarchs of different royal houses (Brunei, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malaysia, and Tonga).
Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting
Main article: Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting
The main decision-making forum of the organisation is the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), where Commonwealth heads of government, including (amongst others) prime ministers and presidents, assemble for several days to discuss matters of mutual interest. CHOGM is the successor to the Meetings of Commonwealth Prime Ministers and, earlier, the Imperial Conferences and Colonial Conferences, dating back to 1887. There are also regular meetings of finance ministers, law ministers, health ministers, etc. Members in arrears, as special members before them, are not invited to send representatives to either ministerial meetings or CHOGMs.
The head of government hosting the CHOGM is called the chair-in-office (CIO) and retains the position until the following CHOGM. Since the most recent CHOGM, in the United Kingdom in 2018, the chair-in-office has been the prime minister of the United Kingdom.
The next (26th) CHOGM was to have been held in Kigali, Rwanda, in June 2020. Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, it was rescheduled to be held there in the week of 21 June 2021; but, because the pandemic has continued, the meeting has been postponed indefinitely. When it takes place, it will be accompanied by meetings of a Commonwealth Youth Forum, a Commonwealth Women’s Forum and a Commonwealth People’s Forum.
Main article: Commonwealth SecretariatMarlborough House, London, the headquarters of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the Commonwealth’s principal intergovernmental institution
The Commonwealth Secretariat, established in 1965, is the main intergovernmental agency of the Commonwealth, facilitating consultation and co-operation among member governments and countries. It is responsible to member governments collectively. The Commonwealth of Nations is represented in the United Nations General Assembly by the secretariat as an observer. The secretariat organises Commonwealth summits, meetings of ministers, consultative meetings and technical discussions; it assists policy development and provides policy advice, and facilitates multilateral communication among the member governments. It also provides technical assistance to help governments in the social and economic development of their countries and in support of the Commonwealth’s fundamental political values.
The secretariat is headed by the Commonwealth secretary-general, who is elected by the Commonwealth heads of government for no more than two four-year terms. The secretary-general and two deputy secretaries-general direct the divisions of the Secretariat. The present secretary-general is Patricia Scotland, Baroness Scotland of Asthal, from Dominica, who took office on 1 April 2016, succeeding Kamalesh Sharma of India (2008–2016). The first secretary-general was Arnold Smith of Canada (1965–75), followed by Sir Shridath Ramphal of Guyana (1975–90), Chief Emeka Anyaoku of Nigeria (1990–99), and Don McKinnon of New Zealand (2000–2008).
Commonwealth citizenship and high commissioners
Main articles: Commonwealth citizen and High commissioner (Commonwealth)
Initially, Commonwealth countries were not considered to be “foreign” to each other as their citizens were British subjects and then Commonwealth citizens. Citizenship laws have evolved independently in each Commonwealth country. For example, in Australia, for the purpose of considering certain constitutional and legal provisions no distinction is made between Commonwealth and foreign countries: in the High Court case of Sue v Hill, other Commonwealth countries (specifically, the United Kingdom) were held to be ‘foreign powers’; similarly, in Nolan v Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, the nationals of other Commonwealth realms were held to be ‘aliens’.
Nevertheless, some members treat resident citizens of other Commonwealth countries preferentially to citizens of non-Commonwealth countries (see Commonwealth citizen). Britain and several others, mostly in the Caribbean, grant the right to vote to Commonwealth citizens who reside in those countries.
The closer association amongst Commonwealth countries is reflected in the diplomatic protocols of the Commonwealth countries. For example, when engaging bilaterally with one another, Commonwealth governments exchange high commissioners instead of ambassadors. In non-Commonwealth countries in which their own country is not represented, Commonwealth citizens may seek consular assistance at the British embassy although it is for the embassy to decide, in its discretion, whether to provide any. Other alternatives can also occur such as an emergency consular services agreement between Canada and Australia that began in 1986.MembershipThe members of the Commonwealth shaded according to their political status. Commonwealth realms are shown in blue, while republics are shaded pink, and members with their own monarchies are displayed in green.
Main article: Commonwealth of Nations membership criteria
The criteria for membership of the Commonwealth of Nations have developed over time from a series of separate documents. The Statute of Westminster 1931, as a fundamental founding document of the organisation, laid out that membership required dominionhood. The 1949 London Declaration ended this, allowing republican and indigenous monarchic members on the condition that they recognised the British monarch as “Head of the Commonwealth”. In the wake of the wave of decolonisation in the 1960s, these constitutional principles were augmented by political, economic, and social principles. The first of these was set out in 1961, when it was decided that respect for racial equality would be a requirement for membership, leading directly to the withdrawal of South Africa’s re-application (which they were required to make under the formula of the London Declaration upon becoming a republic). The 14 points of the 1971 Singapore Declaration dedicated all members to the principles of world peace, liberty, human rights, equality, and free trade.
These criteria were unenforceable for two decades, until, in 1991, the Harare Declaration was issued, dedicating the leaders to applying the Singapore principles to the completion of decolonisation, the end of the Cold War, and the end of apartheid in South Africa. The mechanisms by which these principles would be applied were created, and the manner clarified, by the 1995 Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme, which created the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG), which has the power to rule on whether members meet the requirements for membership under the Harare Declaration. Also in 1995, an Inter-Governmental Group was created to finalise and codify the full requirements for membership. Upon reporting in 1997, as adopted under the Edinburgh Declaration, the Inter-Governmental Group ruled that any future members would have to have a direct constitutional link with an existing member.
In addition to this new rule, the former rules were consolidated into a single document. These requirements are that members must accept and comply with the Harare principles, be fully sovereign states, recognise the monarch of the Commonwealth realms as the head of the Commonwealth, accept the English language as the means of Commonwealth communication, and respect the wishes of the general population with regard to Commonwealth membership. These requirements had undergone review, and a report on potential amendments was presented by the Committee on Commonwealth Membership at the 2007 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. New members were not admitted at this meeting, though applications for admission were considered at the 2009 CHOGM.
New members must “as a general rule” have a direct constitutional link to an existing member. In most cases, this is due to being a former colony of the United Kingdom, but some have links to other countries, either exclusively or more directly (e.g. Samoa to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea to Australia, and Namibia to South Africa). The first member to be admitted without having any constitutional link to the British Empire or a Commonwealth member was Mozambique in 1995 following its first democratic elections and South Africa’s re-admission in 1994. Mozambique was a former Portuguese colony. Mozambique’s controversial entry led to the Edinburgh Declaration and the current membership guidelines.
In 2009, Rwanda became the second Commonwealth member admitted not to have any such constitutional links. It was a Belgian trust territory that had been a German colony until World War I. Consideration for its admission was considered an “exceptional circumstance” by the Commonwealth Secretariat. Rwanda was permitted to join despite the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) finding that “the state of governance and human rights in Rwanda does not satisfy Commonwealth standards”, and that it “does not therefore qualify for admission”. CHRI commented that: “It does not make sense to admit a state that already does not satisfy Commonwealth standards. This would tarnish the reputation of the Commonwealth and confirm the opinion of many people and civic organisations that the leaders of its governments do not really care for democracy and human rights, and that its periodic, solemn declarations are merely hot air.”
Main article: Member states of the Commonwealth of NationsFlags of the members of the Commonwealth in Parliament Square, LondonThe Commonwealth flag flying at the Parliament of Canada in Ottawa
The Commonwealth comprises 54 countries, across all inhabited continents. The members have a combined population of 2.4 billion people, almost a third of the world population, with 1.4 billion living in India, and 94% living in either Asia or Africa. After India, the next-largest Commonwealth countries by population are Pakistan (227 million), Nigeria (213 million), Bangladesh (167 million), and the United Kingdom (68 million). Tuvalu is the smallest member, with about 12,000 people.
The land area of the Commonwealth nations is about 31,500,000 km2 (12,200,000 sq mi), or about 21% of the total world land area. The two largest Commonwealth nations by area are Canada at 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq mi) and Australia at 7,617,930 km2 (2,941,300 sq mi).
The status of “Member in Arrears” is used to denote those that are in arrears in paying subscription dues. The status was originally known as “special membership”, but was renamed on the Committee on Commonwealth Membership’s recommendation. There are currently no Members in Arrears. The most recent Member in Arrears, Nauru, returned to full membership in June 2011. Nauru has alternated between special and full membership since joining the Commonwealth, depending on its financial situation.
Economy of member countries
Main article: List of Commonwealth of Nations countries by GDP (nominal)
In 2019, the Commonwealth members had a combined gross domestic product of over $9 trillion, 78% of which is accounted for by the four largest economies: United Kingdom ($3.124 trillion), India ($3.050 trillion), Canada ($1.652 trillion), and Australia ($1.379 trillion).
See also: Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations § Prospective members
In 1997 the Commonwealth Heads of Government agreed that, to become a member of the Commonwealth, an applicant country should, as a rule, have had a constitutional association with an existing Commonwealth member; that it should comply with Commonwealth values, principles and priorities as set out in the Harare Declaration; and that it should accept Commonwealth norms and conventions.
South Sudanese politicians have expressed interest in joining the Commonwealth. A senior Commonwealth source stated in 2006 that “many people have assumed an interest from Israel, but there has been no formal approach”. The State of Palestine is also a potential candidate for membership.
President Yahya Jammeh unilaterally withdrew The Gambia from the Commonwealth in October 2013. However, newly elected president Adama Barrow returned the country to the organisation in February 2018.
Other eligible applicants could be any of the remaining inhabited British overseas territories, Crown dependencies, Australian external territories and the Associated States of New Zealand if they become fully independent. Many such jurisdictions are already directly represented within the Commonwealth, particularly through the Commonwealth Family. There are also former British possessions that have not become independent: for example, although Hong Kong has become part of China, it continues to participate in some of the institutions within the Commonwealth Family.
All three of the Crown dependencies regard their existing situation as unsatisfactory and have lobbied for change. The States of Jersey have called on the UK foreign secretary to request that the Commonwealth heads of government “consider granting associate membership to Jersey and the other Crown Dependencies as well as any other territories at a similarly advanced stage of autonomy”. Jersey has proposed that it be accorded “self-representation in all Commonwealth meetings; full participation in debates and procedures, with a right to speak where relevant and the opportunity to enter into discussions with those who are full members; and no right to vote in the Ministerial or Heads of Government meetings, which is reserved for full members”. The States of Guernsey and the Government of the Isle of Man have made calls of a similar nature for a more integrated relationship with the Commonwealth, including more direct representation and enhanced participation in Commonwealth organisations and meetings, including Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings. The chief minister of the Isle of Man has said: “A closer connection with the Commonwealth itself would be a welcome further development of the Island’s international relationships”.
Main article: Suspension from the Commonwealth of Nations
Members can be suspended “from the Councils of the Commonwealth” for “serious or persistent violations” of the Harare Declaration, particularly in abrogating their responsibility to have democratic government. Suspensions are agreed by the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG), which meets regularly to address potential breaches of the Harare Declaration. Suspended members are not represented at meetings of Commonwealth leaders and ministers, although they remain members of the organisation.
Nigeria was suspended between 11 November 1995 and 29 May 1999, following its execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa on the eve of the 1995 CHOGM. Pakistan was the second country to be suspended, on 18 October 1999, following the military coup by Pervez Musharraf. The Commonwealth’s longest suspension came to an end on 22 May 2004, when Pakistan’s suspension was lifted following the restoration of the country’s constitution. Pakistan was suspended for a second time, far more briefly, for six months from 22 November 2007, when Musharraf called a state of emergency. Zimbabwe was suspended in 2002 over concerns regarding the electoral and land reform policies of Robert Mugabe’s ZANU-PF government, before it withdrew from the organisation in 2003. On 15 May 2018, Zimbabwe applied to rejoin the Commonwealth.
The declaration of a Republic in Fiji in 1987, after military coups designed to deny Indo-Fijians political power, was not accompanied by an application to remain. Commonwealth membership was held to have lapsed until 1997, after discriminatory provisions in the republican constitution were repealed and reapplication for membership made. Fiji has since been suspended twice, with the first imposed from 6 June 2000 to 20 December 2001 after another coup. Fiji was suspended yet again in December 2006, following the most recent coup. At first, the suspension applied only to membership on the Councils of the Commonwealth. After failing to meet a Commonwealth deadline for setting a date for national elections by 2010, Fiji was “fully suspended” on 1 September 2009. The secretary-general of the Commonwealth, Kamalesh Sharma, confirmed that full suspension meant that Fiji would be excluded from Commonwealth meetings, sporting events and the technical assistance programme (with an exception for assistance in re-establishing democracy). Sharma stated that Fiji would remain a member of the Commonwealth during its suspension, but would be excluded from emblematic representation by the secretariat. On 19 March 2014 Fiji’s full suspension was amended to a suspension from councils of the Commonwealth by the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group, permitting Fiji to join a number of Commonwealth activities, including the Commonwealth Games. Fiji’s suspension was lifted in September 2014. The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group fully reinstated Fiji as a member following elections in September 2014.
Most recently, during 2013 and 2014, international pressure mounted to suspend Sri Lanka from the Commonwealth, citing grave human rights violations by the government of President Mahinda Rajapaksa. There were also calls to change the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2013 from Sri Lanka to another member country. Canadian prime minister Stephen Harper threatened to boycott the event, but was instead represented at the meeting by Deepak Obhrai. UK Prime Minister David Cameron also chose to attend. These concerns were rendered moot by the election of opposition leader Maithripala Sirisena as president in 2015.
See also: Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations § Former members, and Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations § Dissolved members
As membership is purely voluntary, member governments can choose at any time to leave the Commonwealth. Pakistan left on 30 January 1972 in protest at the Commonwealth’s recognition of breakaway Bangladesh, but rejoined on 2 August 1989. Zimbabwe’s membership was suspended in 2002 on the grounds of alleged human rights violations and deliberate misgovernment, and Zimbabwe’s government terminated its membership in 2003. The Gambia left the Commonwealth on 3 October 2013, and rejoined on 8 February 2018. The Maldives withdrew from the Commonwealth on 13 October 2016. The Maldivian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that “the Commonwealth has not recognised […] the progress and achievements that the Maldives accomplished in cultivating a culture of democracy in the country and in building and strengthening democratic institutions”. The Ministry also cited the Commonwealth’s “punitive actions against the Maldives since 2012” after the allegedly forced resignation of Maldivian President Mohamed Nasheed among the reasons for withdrawal. The Ministry characterized the decision to withdraw as “difficult, but inevitable”. Following the election of Ibrahim Mohamed Solih as president in November 2018, the Maldives announced its intention to reapply to join the Commonwealth. They rejoined on 1 February 2020.
Although heads of government have the power to suspend member states from active participation, the Commonwealth has no provision for the expulsion of members.
Until 1948, there was a consensus among the existing half-dozen Commonwealth members that Commonwealth realms that became a republic would cease to be members but the situation changed in 1948 when newly independent India announced its intention to become a republic on 1 January 1950 although it wished to remain in the Commonwealth. This was granted. Now, the majority of the Commonwealth members, including all those from Africa, are republics or have their own native monarch.
Ireland withdrew from participation in the Commonwealth in the 1930s, attending its last Commonwealth governmental heads’ meeting in 1932. For some years Ireland considered itself to be a republic outside the Commonwealth but the Commonwealth considered Ireland to still be a Commonwealth member. Its treatment as a member ended on 18 April 1949 when Irish legislation that the Commonwealth chose to regard as having caused Ireland to become a republic became law. It is the only country whose membership terminated without any declaration withdrawing from the organisation. Instead, it was (with its own tacit support) excluded from the organisation.
South Africa was barred from continuing as a member after it became a republic in 1961, due to hostility from many members, particularly those in Africa and Asia as well as Canada, to its policy of racial apartheid. The South African government withdrew its application to remain in the organisation as a republic when it became clear at the 1961 Commonwealth Prime Ministers’ Conference that any such application would be rejected. South Africa was re-admitted to the Commonwealth in 1994, following its first multiracial elections that year.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997 ended the territory’s status as a part of the Commonwealth through the United Kingdom. Non-sovereign states or regions are not permitted to become members of the Commonwealth. The government of the People’s Republic of China has not pursued membership. Hong Kong has nevertheless continued to participate in some of the organisations of the Commonwealth family, such as the Commonwealth Lawyers Association (hosted the Commonwealth Lawyers Conference in 1983 and 2009), the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (and the Westminster Seminar on Parliamentary Practice and Procedures), the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Commonwealth Association of Legislative Counsel, as well as the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC).Politics
Objectives and activities
The Commonwealth’s objectives were first outlined in the 1971 Singapore Declaration, which committed the Commonwealth to the institution of world peace; promotion of representative democracy and individual liberty; the pursuit of equality and opposition to racism; the fight against poverty, ignorance, and disease; and free trade. To these were added opposition to discrimination on the basis of gender by the Lusaka Declaration of 1979, and environmental sustainability by the Langkawi Declaration of 1989. These objectives were reinforced by the Harare Declaration in 1991.
The Commonwealth’s current highest-priority aims are on the promotion of democracy and development, as outlined in the 2003 Aso Rock Declaration, which built on those in Singapore and Harare and clarified their terms of reference, stating, “We are committed to democracy, good governance, human rights, gender equality, and a more equitable sharing of the benefits of globalisation.” The Commonwealth website lists its areas of work as: democracy, economics, education, gender, governance, human rights, law, small states, sport, sustainability, and youth.
Through a separate voluntary fund, Commonwealth governments support the Commonwealth Youth Programme, a division of the Secretariat with offices in Gulu (Uganda), Lusaka (Zambia), Chandigarh (India), Georgetown (Guyana) and Honiara (Solomon Islands).
In recent years,[when?] the Commonwealth has been accused of not being vocal enough on its core values. Allegations of a leaked memo from the Secretary General instructing staff not to speak out on human rights were published in October 2010.
The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2011 considered a report by a Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group (EPG) panel which asserted that the organisation had lost its relevance and was decaying due to the lack of a mechanism to censure member countries when they violated human rights or democratic norms. The panel made 106 “urgent” recommendations including the adoption of a Charter of the Commonwealth, the creation of a new commissioner on the rule of law, democracy and human rights to track persistent human rights abuses and allegations of political repression by Commonwealth member states, recommendations for the repeal of laws against homosexuality in 41 Commonwealth states and a ban on forced marriage. The failure to release the report, or accept its recommendations for reforms in the area of human rights, democracy and the rule of law, was decried as a “disgrace” by former British Foreign Secretary Sir Malcolm Rifkind, a member of the EPG, who told a press conference: “The Commonwealth faces a very significant problem. It’s not a problem of hostility or antagonism, it’s more of a problem of indifference. Its purpose is being questioned, its relevance is being questioned and part of that is because its commitment to enforce the values for which it stands is becoming ambiguous in the eyes of many member states. The Commonwealth is not a private club of the governments or the secretariat. It belongs to the people of the Commonwealth.”
In the end, two-thirds of the EPG’s 106 urgently recommended reforms were referred to study groups, an act described by one EPG member as having them “kicked into the long grass”. There was no agreement to create the recommended position of human rights commissioner, instead a ministerial management group was empowered with enforcement: the group includes alleged human rights offenders. It was agreed to develop a charter of values for the Commonwealth without any decision on how compliance with its principles would be enforced.
The result of the effort was that a new Charter of the Commonwealth was signed by Queen Elizabeth on 11 March 2013 at Marlborough House, which opposes “all forms of discrimination, whether rooted in gender, race, colour, creed, political belief or other grounds”.Economy
Economic data by member
|showEconomies of the Commonwealth of Nations 2012|
During the Second World War, the Commonwealth played a major role in helping British finances. Foreign exchange reserves were pooled in London, to be used to fight the war. In effect Britain procured £2.3 billion, of which £1.3 billion was from India. The debt was held in the form of British government securities and became known as “sterling balances”. By 1950, India, Pakistan and Ceylon had spent much of their sterling, while other countries accumulated more. The sterling area that included all of the Commonwealth except for Canada, together with some smaller countries especially in the Persian Gulf. They held their foreign-exchange in sterling, protecting that currency from runs, and facilitating trade and investment inside the Commonwealth. It was a formal relationship with fixed exchange rates, and periodic meetings at Commonwealth summits to coordinate trade policy, and domestic economic policies. Britain ran a trade surplus, and the other countries were mostly producers of raw materials sold to Britain. However the commercial rationale was gradually less attractive to the Commonwealth. Access to the growing London capital market, however, remained an important advantage to the newly independent nations. As Britain moved increasingly close to Europe, however, the long-term ties began to be in doubt.
UK joins the European Economic Community
By 1961, with a sluggish economy, Britain repeatedly tried to join the European Economic Community, but this was repeatedly vetoed by Charles de Gaulle. After his death, entry was finally achieved in 1973. Queen Elizabeth was one of the few remaining links between the UK and the Commonwealth. She tried to reassure the other countries that the Commonwealth family was joining forces with the Europeans, and that the new links would not replace the old Commonwealth ties based on historical attachments, which were too sacred to break. Historian Ben Pimlott argues that she was mistaken, for joining Europe “constituted the most decisive step yet in the progress of severance of familial ties between Britain and its former Empire….It reduced the remaining links to sentimental and cultural ones, and legal niceties.”
The newly independent countries of Africa and Asia concentrated on their own internal political and economic development, and sometimes their role in the Cold War. The United States, international agencies, and the Soviet Union became important players, and the British role receded. Indeed, the British considered the newly independent countries burdensome and were themselves alienated from traditional imperialism. Many former colonies saw Britain as a declining loner and preferred a prosperous Britain linked to a prosperous Europe. The dominions saw their historic ties with Britain were rapidly fraying. The Canadian economy increasingly focused on trade with the United States, and had less to do with Britain or other Commonwealth nations. Internal Canadian disputes revolved around the growing American cultural economic presence, and the strong force of Quebec nationalism. In 1964 the Maple Leaf flag replaced the Canadian Ensign to the sorrow of many Anglophiles—it was “the last gasp of empire”. Australia and New Zealand were in deep shock but kept a low profile not wanting to alienate London. Nevertheless, the implications of British entry into Europe:seemed shattering to most Australians, particularly to older people and conservatives. In fact the United Kingdom, as Australia’s chief trading partner, was being very rapidly replaced just at this time by the United States and an economically resurgent Japan, but most people were scarcely aware of this…. It was feared that British entry into the Common Market was bound to mean abolition, or at least scaling down, of preferential tariff arrangements for Australians goods. 
Further information: Commonwealth free trade
Although the Commonwealth does not have a multilateral trade agreement, research by the Royal Commonwealth Society has shown that trade with another Commonwealth member is up to 50% more than with a non-member on average, with smaller and less wealthy states having a higher propensity to trade within the Commonwealth. At the 2005 Summit in Malta, the heads of government endorsed pursuing free trade among Commonwealth members on a bilateral basis.
Following its vote in June 2016 to leave the EU, some politicians in the United Kingdom have suggested the idea as an alternative to its membership in the European Union, however it is far from clear that this would either offer sufficient economic benefit to replace the impact of leaving the EU or be acceptable to other member states Although the EU is already in the process of negotiating free trade agreements with many Commonwealth countries such as India and Canada, it took the EU almost ten years to come to an agreement with Canada, due to the challenge associated with achieving the necessary EU-wide approvals.Commonwealth FamilyMain article: Commonwealth Family
Commonwealth countries share many links outside government, with over a hundred Commonwealth-wide non-governmental organisations, notably for sport, culture, education, law and charity. The Association of Commonwealth Universities is an important vehicle for academic links, particularly through scholarships, principally the Commonwealth Scholarship, for students to study in universities in other Commonwealth countries. There are also many non-official associations that bring together individuals who work within the spheres of law and government, such as the Commonwealth Lawyers Association and the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association.
Main article: Commonwealth Foundation
The Commonwealth Foundation is an intergovernmental organisation, resourced by and reporting to Commonwealth governments, and guided by Commonwealth values and priorities. Its mandate is to strengthen civil society in the achievement of Commonwealth priorities: democracy and good governance, respect for human rights and gender equality, poverty eradication, people-centred and sustainable development, and to promote arts and culture.
The Foundation was established in 1965 by the Heads of Government. Admittance is open to all members of the Commonwealth, and in December 2008, stood at 46 out of the 53 member countries. Associate Membership, which is open to associated states or overseas territories of member governments, has been granted to Gibraltar. 2005 saw celebrations for the Foundation’s 40th Anniversary. The Foundation is headquartered in Marlborough House, Pall Mall, London. Regular liaison and co-operation between the Secretariat and the Foundation is in place. The Foundation continues to serve the broad purposes for which it was established as written in the Memorandum of Understanding.
Main article: Commonwealth GamesThe Commonwealth Games are the third-largest multi-sport event in the world, bringing together globally popular sports and peculiarly “Commonwealth” sports, such as rugby sevens, shown here at the 2006 Games.
The Commonwealth Games, a multi-sport event, is held every four years; the 2014 Commonwealth Games were held in Glasgow, Scotland, and the 2018 Commonwealth Games in Gold Coast, Australia. Birmingham is set to be the host for 2022 Commonwealth Games. As well as the usual athletic disciplines, as at the Summer Olympic Games, the games include sports particularly popular in the Commonwealth, such as bowls, netball, and rugby sevens. Started in 1930 as the Empire Games, the games were founded on the Olympic model of amateurism, but were deliberately designed to be “the Friendly Games”, with the goal of promoting relations between Commonwealth countries and celebrating their shared sporting and cultural heritage.
The games are the Commonwealth’s most visible activity and interest in the operation of the Commonwealth increases greatly when the Games are held. There is controversy over whether the games—and sport generally—should be involved in the Commonwealth’s wider political concerns. The 1977 Gleneagles Agreement was signed to commit Commonwealth countries to combat apartheid through discouraging sporting contact with South Africa (which was not then a member), whilst the 1986 games were boycotted by most African, Asian, and Caribbean countries for the failure of other countries to enforce the Gleneagles Agreement.
Commonwealth War Graves Commission
Main article: Commonwealth War Graves CommissionThe Commonwealth War Graves Commission serves to commemorate 1.7 million Commonwealth war dead and maintains 2,500 war cemeteries around the world, including this one in Gallipoli.
The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is responsible for maintaining the war graves of 1.7 million service personnel that died in the First and Second World Wars fighting for Commonwealth member states. Founded in 1917 (as the Imperial War Graves Commission), the commission has constructed 2,500 war cemeteries, and maintains individual graves at another 20,000 sites around the world. The vast majority of the latter are civilian cemeteries in Britain. In 1998, the CWGC made the records of its buried online to facilitate easier searching.
Commonwealth war cemeteries often feature similar horticulture and architecture, with larger cemeteries being home to a Cross of Sacrifice and Stone of Remembrance. The CWGC is notable for marking the graves identically, regardless of the rank, country of origin, race, or religion of the buried.[note 1] It is funded by voluntary agreement by six Commonwealth members, in proportion to the nationality of the casualties in the graves maintained, with 75% of the funding coming from Britain.
Commonwealth of Learning
Main article: Commonwealth of Learning
The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) is an intergovernmental organisation created by the Heads of Government to encourage the development and sharing of open learning/distance education knowledge, resources and technologies. COL is helping developing nations improve access to quality education and training.
Commonwealth Local Government Forum
Main article: Commonwealth Local Government Forum
The Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) is a global local government organisation, bringing together local authorities, their national associations and the ministries responsible for local government in the member countries of the Commonwealth. CLGF works with national and local governments to support the development of democratic values and good local governance and is the associated organisation officially recognised by Commonwealth Heads of Government as the representative body for local government in the Commonwealth.
CLGF is unique in bringing together central, provincial and local spheres of government involved in local government policy and decision-making. CLGF members include local government associations, individual local authorities, ministries dealing with local government, and research and professional organisations who work with local government. Practitioner to practitioner support is at the core of CLGF’s work across the Commonwealth and within the region, using CLGF’s own members to support others both within and between regions. CLGF is a member of the Global Taskforce of Local and Regional Governments, the formal partner of the UN Major Group of Local Authorities.Culture
Many Commonwealth nations possess traditions and customs that are elements of a shared Commonwealth culture. Examples include common sports such as cricket and rugby, driving on the left, the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy, common law, widespread use of the English language, designation of English as an official language, military and naval ranks, and the use of British rather than American spelling conventions (see English in the Commonwealth of Nations).
Many Commonwealth nations play similar sports that are considered quintessentially British in character, rooted in and developed under British rule or hegemony, including cricket, football, rugby and netball. This has led to the development of friendly national rivalries between the main sporting nations that have often defined their relations with each other. Indeed, said rivalries preserved close ties by providing a constant in international relationships, even as the Empire transformed into the Commonwealth Games. Externally, playing these sports is seen to be a sign of sharing a certain Commonwealth culture; the adoption of cricket at schools in Rwanda is seen as symbolic of the country’s move towards Commonwealth membership.
See also: Postcolonial literature and Migrant literature
The shared history of British presence has produced a substantial body of writing in many languages, known as Commonwealth literature. The Association for Commonwealth Literature and Language Studies has 11 branches worldwide and holds an international conference every three years.
In 1987, the Commonwealth Foundation established the annual Commonwealth Writers’ Prize “to encourage and reward the upsurge of new Commonwealth fiction and ensure that works of merit reach a wider audience outside their country of origin”. Prizes are awarded for the best book and best first book in the Commonwealth; there are also regional prizes for the best book and best first book in each of four regions. Although not officially affiliated with the Commonwealth, the prestigious annual Man Booker Prize, one of the highest honours in literature, used to be awarded only to authors from Commonwealth countries or former members such as Ireland and Zimbabwe. Since 2014, however, writers of any nationality have been eligible for the prize providing that they write originally in English and their novels are published by established publishers in the United Kingdom.
There had been a few important works in English prior to 1950 from the then British Empire. From 1950 on, a significant number of writers from the countries of the Commonwealth began gaining international recognition, including some who migrated to the United Kingdom.
The South African writer Olive Schreiner’s famous novel The Story of an African Farm was published in 1883 and New Zealander Katherine Mansfield published her first collection of short stories, In a German Pension, in 1911. The first major novelist, writing in English, from the Indian sub-continent, R. K. Narayan, began publishing in England in the 1930s, thanks to the encouragement of English novelist Graham Greene. Caribbean writer Jean Rhys’s writing career began as early as 1928, though her most famous work, Wide Sargasso Sea, was not published until 1966. South Africa’s Alan Paton’s famous Cry, the Beloved Country dates from 1948. Doris Lessing from Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, was a dominant presence in the English literary scene, frequently publishing from 1950 on throughout the 20th century. She won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2007.
Salman Rushdie is another post-Second World War writer from the former British colonies who permanently settled in Britain. Rushdie achieved fame with Midnight’s Children (1981). His most controversial novel, The Satanic Verses (1989), was inspired in part by the life of Muhammad. V. S. Naipaul (born 1932), born in Trinidad, was another immigrant, who wrote among other things A Bend in the River (1979). Naipaul won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2001.
Many other Commonwealth writers have achieved an international reputation for works in English, including Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe, and playwright Wole Soyinka. Soyinka won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1986, as did South African novelist Nadine Gordimer in 1995. Other South African writers in English are novelist J. M. Coetzee (Nobel Prize 2003) and playwright Athol Fugard. Kenya’s most internationally renowned author is Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o, who has written novels, plays and short stories in English. Poet Derek Walcott, from Saint Lucia in the Caribbean, was another Nobel Prize winner in 1992. An Australian, Patrick White, a major novelist in this period, whose first work was published in 1939, won in 1973. Other noteworthy Australian writers at the end of this period are poet Les Murray, and novelist Peter Carey, who is one of only four writers to have won the Booker Prize twice.
Due to their shared constitutional histories, several countries in the Commonwealth have similar legal and political systems. The Commonwealth requires its members to be functioning democracies that respect human rights and the rule of law. Most Commonwealth countries have the bicameral Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association facilitates co-operation between legislatures across the Commonwealth, and the Commonwealth Local Government Forum promotes good governance amongst local government officials. Most Commonwealth members use common law, modelled on English law. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the supreme court of 14 Commonwealth members.
The Commonwealth has adopted a number of symbols that represent the association of its members. The English language is recognised as a symbol of the members’ heritage; as well as being considered a symbol of the Commonwealth, recognition of it as “the means of Commonwealth communication” is a prerequisite for Commonwealth membership. The flag of the Commonwealth consists of the symbol of the Commonwealth Secretariat, a gold globe surrounded by emanating rays, on a dark blue field; it was designed for the second CHOGM in 1973, and officially adopted on 26 March 1976. 1976 also saw the organisation agree to a common date on which to commemorate Commonwealth Day, the second Monday in March, having developed separately on different dates from Empire Day celebrations.
In 2009, to mark the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Commonwealth, the Royal Commonwealth Society commissioned a poll of public opinion in seven of the member states: Australia, Canada, India, Jamaica, Malaysia, South Africa and the United Kingdom. It found that most people in these countries were largely ignorant of the Commonwealth’s activities, aside from the Commonwealth Games, and indifferent toward its future. Support for the Commonwealth was twice as high in developing countries as in developed countries; it was lowest in Britain.
Also to mark the 60th anniversary (Diamond Jubilee) of the Commonwealth in 2009, the Commonwealth Secretariat commissioned Paul Carroll to compose “The Commonwealth Anthem”. The lyrics of the Anthem are taken from the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Commonwealth has published the Anthem, performed by the Commonwealth Youth Orchestra, with and without an introductory narrative.See also
- Community of Portuguese Language Countries, an equivalent grouping of Portuguese-speaking countries and territories
- English-speaking world
- La Francophonie
- List of country groupings
- List of multilateral free-trade agreements
- List of Commonwealth of Nations countries by GDP
- List of Commonwealth of Nations prime ministers
- Organization of Ibero-American States
- Representatives of the Commonwealth of Nations
- Special Relationship, the common name for the relations between the United Kingdom and the United States
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Recalling that the Commonwealth is a voluntary association of independent and equal sovereign states, each responsible for its own policies, consulting and co-operating in the common interests of our peoples and in the promotion of international understanding and world peace, and influencing international society to the benefit of all through the pursuit of common principles and values
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Their position and mutual relation may be readily defined. They are autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations.
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- ^ “How we are run”. The Commonwealth. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- ^ “Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM)”. The Commonwealth. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
- ^ Jump up to: a b Cook and Paxton, Commonwealth Political Facts (1978) part 3.
- ^ Dale, William (July 1982). “Is the Commonwealth an International Organisation?”. International and Comparative Law Quarterly. 31 (3): 451–73. doi:10.1093/iclqaj/31.3.451.
- ^ Clute, Robert E.; Wilson, Robert R. (July 1958). “Commonwealth and Favored-Nation Usage”. American Journal of International Law. 52 (3): 455–468. doi:10.2307/2195461. JSTOR 2195461.
- ^ Hedley, Bull (July 1959). “What is the Commonwealth?”. World Politics. 11 (4): 577–87. doi:10.2307/2009593. JSTOR 2009593.
- ^ Lloyd, Lorna (2007). Diplomacy with a Difference: The Commonwealth Office of High Commissioner, 1880-2006. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 119–120. ISBN 978-90-04-15497-1. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- ^ “Support for British nationals abroad: a guide” (PDF). Foreign and Commonwealth Office. 2013. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2013.
We may also help Commonwealth nationals in non-Commonwealth countries where they do not have any diplomatic or consular representation, but will normally ask their nearest embassy to provide any ongoing assistance required.
- ^ “Canada-Australia Consular Services Sharing Agreement”. Travel.gc.ca. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2014.
- ^ de Smith, S.A. (July 1949). “The London Declaration of the Commonwealth Prime Ministers, 28 April 1949”. The Modern Law Review. 12 (3): 351–354. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2230.1949.tb00131.x. JSTOR 1090506.
- ^ Jump up to: a b “Lusaka Declaration on Racism and Racial Prejudice”. Commonwealth Secretariat. 7 August 1979. Archived from the original on 30 September 2006. Retrieved 3 April 2008.
- ^ Williams, Paul D. (July 2005). “Blair’s Britain and the Commonwealth”. The Round Table. 94 (380): 381–391. doi:10.1080/00358530500174960. S2CID 154400556.
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- ^ Jump up to: a b “Rwanda’s application for membership, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative” (PDF). Retrieved 27 July 2021.
- ^ Three Commonwealth countries also have long-standing claims to sovereignty in Antarctica, although these claims are not widely recognised. The claims, which each include permanent research stations and together cover most of the continent, are the Australian Antarctic Territory, the British Antarctic Territory and the Ross Dependency (New Zealand).
- ^ “Country Comparisons – Population”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 19 March 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
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- ^ Jump up to: a b “The Gambia rejoins the Commonwealth”. Commonwealth Secretariat. 8 February 2018.
- ^ “States and Territories”. 15CCEM. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
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- ^ Ingram, Derek (October 1999). “Commonwealth Update”. The Round Table. 88 (352): 547–567. doi:10.1080/003585399107758.
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- ^ Ingram, Derek (July 2000). “Commonwealth Update”. The Round Table. 89 (355): 311–55. doi:10.1080/00358530050083406. S2CID 219626283.
- ^ Jump up to: a b
- ^ “Foreign & Commonwealth Office Minister welcomes Commonwealth statement on Fiji – GOV.UK”. www.gov.uk.
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- ^ Commonwealth Observer Group (1999). The National and Provincial Elections in South Africa, 2 June 1999. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-85092-626-2.
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- ^ Alan S. Milward, The rise and fall of a national strategy, 1945–1963 (2002).
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- ^ Gill Bennett (2013). Six Moments of Crisis: Inside British Foreign Policy. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-19-164163-3.
- ^ Gregory A. Johnson, “The Last Gasp of Empire: The 1964 Flag Debate Revisited,” in Phillip Buckner, ed., Canada and the End of Empire (U of British Columbia Press, 2005) p. 6.
- ^ Andrea Benvenuti, “‘Layin’ Low and Sayin’ Nuffin’: Australia’s Policy towards Britain’s Second Bid to Join the European Economic Community (1966–67)” Australian Economic History Review 46#2 (2006): 155–175.
- ^ Bruce Brown (1977). New Zealand in World Affairs: 1972–1990. Victoria UP. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-86473-372-6.
- ^ Russell Ward, A Nation for a Continent: the history of Australia, 1901–1975 (1977) p 343
- ^ “Trading Places: The “Commonwealth effect” revisited, p. 9″ (PDF).
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- ^ “The role and future of the Commonwealth” (PDF). British Parliament. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
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- ^ “To the Commonwealth, “Global Britain” sounds like nostalgia for something else”. New Statesman 28th February 2017. 25 February 2017.
- ^ “Assessing the Costs and Benefits of a Closer EU – Canada Economic Partnership: A Joint Study by the European Commission and the Government of Canada” (PDF). Trade.EC.Europe.eu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- ^ “Canada-European Union: CETA”. International.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
- ^ “Commonwealth Foundation – About Us”. 5 January 2006. Archived from the original on 5 January 2006.
- ^ Jump up to: a b McKinnon, Don (February 2008). “A Commonwealth of Values: a Commonwealth of incomparable value”. The Round Table. 97 (394): 19–28. doi:10.1080/00358530801890561. S2CID 153395786.
- ^ Jump up to: a b “Commonwealth Games and Art Festival”. The Round Table. 91 (365): 293–296. July 2002. doi:10.1080/0035853022000010308. S2CID 219624041.
- ^ McDougall, Derek (July 2005). “Australia and the Commonwealth”. The Round Table. 94 (380): 339–349. doi:10.1080/00358530500175033. S2CID 154343051.
- ^ Muda, Muhammad (April 1998). “The significance of the Commonwealth Games in Malaysia’s foreign policy”. The Round Table. 87 (346): 211–226. doi:10.1080/00358539808454416.
- ^ Jump up to: a b
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- ^ Geurst, Jeroen (2010). Cemeteries of the Great War By Sir Edwin Lutyens. ISBN 978-90-6450-715-1.
- ^ “Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) | The Commonwealth”. thecommonwealth.org. 31 July 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- ^ “Global Taskforce of Local and Regional Governments”. globaltaskforce. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- ^ Perkin, Harold (September 1989). “Teaching the nations how to play: sport and society in the British Empire and Commonwealth”. International Journal of the History of Sport. 6 (2): 145–155. doi:10.1080/09523368908713685.
- ^ Dawson, Michael (February 2006). “Acting global, thinking local: ‘Liquid imperialism’ and the multiple meanings of the 1954 British Empire & Commonwealth Games”. International Journal of the History of Sport. 23 (1): 3–27. doi:10.1080/09523360500386419.
- ^ Tunca, Daria (27 September 2018). “ACLALS: Association for Commonwealth Literature and Language Studies”. ACLALS. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
- ^ “Meet the Man Booker Prize 2014 Judges”. The Man Booker Prizes. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- ^ Drabble, Margaret, ed. (1996). The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Oxford: Oxford U.P.
- ^ “The Nobel Prize in Literature 2007”. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
- ^ “The Nobel Prize in Literature 2001”. Literature. Nobel Prize Outreach AB.
- ^ Man Booker official site: J. G. Farrell; Hilary Mantel: J. M. Coetzee Archived 17 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ The Statesman’s Yearbook 2017: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World. Palgrave Macmillan UK. 2017. p. 46. ISBN 978-1-349-68398-7.
- ^ Flags of All Nations: Flags of the British Commonwealth of Nations (Brown, Son & Ferguson, 1952)
- ^ Royal Commonwealth Society, An Uncommon Association, a Wealth of Potential: Final Report of the Commonwealth Conversation (London, Royal Commonwealth Society, 2010)
- ^ “A Celebration of Her Majesty’s Sapphire Jubilee”. Commonwealth Music Council. 2016.
- ^ “Commonwealth Anthem (with introductory narrative)”. YouTube. 13 September 2017. Archived from the original on 15 December 2021.
- ^ “Windsor Suite Commonwealth Anthem”. YouTube. 20 March 2018. Archived from the original on 15 December 2021.
- Ashton, Sarah R. “British government perspectives on the Commonwealth, 1964–71: An asset or a liability?.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 35.1 (2007): 73–94.
- Bloomfield, Valerie. Commonwealth Elections 1945–1970 (1976).
- Cook, Chris and John Paxton. Commonwealth Political Facts (Macmillan, 1978).
- Hall, H. Duncan. “The genesis of the Balfour declaration of 1926.” Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 1.3 (1962): 169–193.
- Holland, Robert F. Britain and the Commonwealth Alliance, 1918-39 (Springer, 1981).
- Jebb, Richard (1905). “Imperial Organization” . The Empire and the century. London: John Murray. pp. 332–348.
- Lloyd, Lorna. Diplomacy with a difference: the Commonwealth Office of High Commissioner, 1880–2006 (Brill, 2007).
- McIntyre, W. David. “The strange death of dominion status.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 27.2 (1999): 193–212.
- McIntyre, W. David. The commonwealth of nations: Origins and impact, 1869–1971 (U of Minnesota Press, 1977); Comprehensive coverage giving London’s perspective on political and constitutional relations with each possession.
- McIntyre, W. David. A Guide to the Contemporary Commonwealth, Palgrave, 2001. ISBN 978-0-333-96310-4.
- McIntyre, W. David. “The Unofficial Commonwealth Relations Conferences, 1933–59: Precursors of the Tri-sector Commonwealth.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 36.4 (2008): 591–614.
- Madden, Frederick and John Darwin, eds. The Dependent Empire, 1900–1948: Colonies, Protectorates, and the Mandates (1994) 908 pp online
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- Mansergh, Nicholas The Commonwealth in the World, University of Toronto Press, 1982.ISBN 978-0-8020-2492-3.
- Moore, R.J. Making the New Commonwealth, Clarendon Press, 1988. ISBN 978-0-19-820112-0.
- Murphy, Philip. Monarchy and the End of Empire: The House of Windsor, the British Government, and the Postwar Commonwealth (Oxford UP 2013) doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199214235.001.0001
- Perkin, Harold. “Teaching the nations how to play: sport and society in the British empire and Commonwealth.” International Journal of the History of Sport 6.2 (1989): 145–155.
- Shaw, Timothy M. Commonwealth: Inter- and Non-State Contributions to Global Governance, Routledge, 2008. ISBN 978-0-415-35120-1
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- Wheare, K. C. The Constitutional Structure of the Commonwealth, Clarendon Press, 1960.ISBN 978-0-313-23624-2.
- Williams, Paul D. “Blair’s Britain and the Commonwealth.” The Round Table 94.380 (2005): 381–391.
- Winks, Robin, ed. The Historiography of the British Empire-Commonwealth: Trends, Interpretations and Resources (1966) online
- Madden, Frederick, ed. The End of Empire: Dependencies since 1948: Select Documents on the Constitutional History of the British Empire and Commonwealth: The West Indies, British Honduras, Hong Kong, Fiji, Cyprus, Gibraltar, and the Falklands (2000) online 596pp
- Madden, Frederick, and John Darwin, ed. The Dependent Empire: 1900–1948: Colonies, Protectorates, and Mandates (1963) 908pp online
- Mansergh, Nicholas, ed. Documents and Speeches on Commonwealth Affairs, 1952–1962 (1963) 804pp online
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Значение commonwealth в английском
содружествосуществительное [ C ]uk /ˈkɒm.ən.welθ/ us /ˈkɑː.mən.welθ/группа стран с одинаковыми политическими или экономическими целями:Содружество Независимых Государствстрана или часть страны, которая управляется своим народом или представители, избранные его народом. SMART Vocabulary: родственные слова и фразы.
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Học những từ bạn cần để giao tiếp một cách tự tin. Tiểu bang chúng tôi. Khối thịnh vượng chung cũng là một nơi tự quản liên kết với Hoa Kỳ, chẳng hạn như Puerto Rico. những người hoặc những người được họ lựa chọn. Từ này được dùng làm tên của một số tiểu bang ở Hoa Kỳ: ở Pennsylvania, các con sông có thể điều hướng được thuộc về Khối thịnh vượng chung. Một nhóm có tổ chức gồm các tiểu bang hoặc các quốc gia độc lập có cùng mục tiêu chính trị hoặc kinh tế: Khối thịnh vượng chung Úc (= liên bang của các tiểu bang Úc). Nhà vận động hành lang và các giao dịch của ông ta với Guam và Khối thịnh vượng chung của Quần đảo Bắc Mariana đang được điều tra. Một tổ chức của các quốc gia độc lập từng là một phần của Đế quốc Anh trước đây và hiện có quan hệ chính trị hoặc kinh tế thân thiện với nhau. Một số nhỏ các quốc gia không thuộc Đế chế Anh cũng gia nhập Khối thịnh vượng chung.Bản dịch từ thịnh vượng chung sang tiếng Trung (phồn thể) (có cùng mục tiêu chính trị hoặc kinh tế) hiệp hội các quốc gia, liên bang, bang … Xem thêm sang tiếng Trung (giản thể) (có cùng mục tiêu chính trị hoặc kinh tế) hiệp hội các quốc gia, liên bang, tiểu bang … Thêm bằng tiếng Tây Ban Nha, Khối thịnh vượng chung, Khối thịnh vượng chung … Đọc thêm trong Tiếng Bồ Đào Nha … Đọc thêm Bạn cần phiên dịch?
Nhận bản dịch nhanh và miễn phí! Công cụ Dịch Làm thế nào để phát âm thịnh vượng chung ? Xem _
Các bài viết từ dự án mở Từ điển Anh-Việt.
/ ´kɔmən¸welθ /
Tất cả mọi người (quốc gia)
Đoàn kịch mà các diễn viên đã chia sẻ số tiền thu được
Khối thịnh vượng chung Australia Liên bang Australia Khối thịnh vượng chung của Cộng hòa Anh trong thời kỳ Cromon Khối thịnh vượng chung (bao gồm Vương quốc Anh, một số quốc gia độc lập và các quốc gia phụ thuộc) Từ liên quan
Từ đồng nghĩa
cơ quan chính trị, quyền công dân, công dân, cộng đồng, dân chủ, liên bang, quốc gia, những người, tiểu bang, nước cộng hòa, xã hội, cộng đồng, công khai, Res publica, tiểu bang
Từ vựng: Chung
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Cách phát âm [sửa]
- IPA: /.ˌwɛɫθ/
Hoa Kỳ [.ˌwɛɫθ]
Danh từ [sửa]
thịnh vượng chung /.ˌwɛɫθ/
- Tất cả mọi người (quốc gia).
- Khối thịnh vượng chung của các quốc gia là Khối thịnh vượng chung của Vương quốc Anh và các thuộc địa cũ của nó;
- một nước cộng hòa hay thịnh vượng chung, như trong Khối thịnh vượng chung của Úc, là một nước cộng hòa dân chủ.
- Chính phủ thịnh vượng chung của Cộng hòa Anh (Chroma 1649 1660).
- Đoàn kịch đóng góp (trong đó các diễn viên chia sẻ số tiền thu được).
- ( Tôi thích ) Khối thịnh vượng chung.
Liên kết [sửa]
- Hồ Ngọc Đức, Từ điển tiếng Việt miễn phí (Chi tiết)
- yếu tố của từ tiếng anh
- danh từ tiếng anh
- Danh từ
Video Commonwealth là gì |Tất tần tật về commonwealth
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